Polygonatum japonicum C. Morr. & Decne. Liliaceae.

Japan. It is called amatokoro by the Japanese and the root is used.

Polygonatum multiflorum All. Solomon's Seal.

Northern regions. The root, says Johnson, macerated for some time in water, yields a substance capable of being used as food and consisting principally of starch. The young shoots form an excellent vegetable when boiled and eaten like asparagus and are largely consumed in Turkey. The European form of the species, mentioned by Titford, is well known to the negroes in Jamaica, who eat it boiled, and the Indians in North America also feed upon the root. Parkman states that the roots of Solomon's Seal were used as food by starving Frenchmen.

Polygonatum officinale All. Solomon's Seal.

Europe and Siberia. The roots have been used, says Withering, made into bread in times of scarcity but they require boiling or baking before use.

Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World, 1919, was edited by U. P. Hedrick.