Definition.—A hemorrhage from the walls of the bladder.
Etiology.—Quite a variety of causes may give rise to hemorrhage from the bladder, and, though usually symptomatic, the use of the endoscope in recent years has revealed a hemorrhoidal condition of the veins of the bladder that is responsible for hemorrhages that were heretofore inexplicable. Malignant diseases of the bladder that in their ravages destroy arterial vessels, are attended by hemorrhages, and malarial hematuria is not uncommon. Leukemia may also be a causal factor. As a mechanical cause, the irritation from renal and vesical calculi is not to be overlooked. Rarely, hemorrhage from the bladder occurs in the latter months of pregnancy.
Symptoms.—Aside from the presence of blood in the urine, there will be a sense of fullness in the bladder, and the pain is of a dull, aching character, with a sense of weight and oppression when due to hemorrhoidal veins.
Diagnosis.—A positive diagnosis can only be made by a cystoscopic examination of the bladder, though the absence of the usually well-defined symptoms that accompany renal hemorrhage would suggest hemorrhage from the bladder.
Prognosis.—This is generally favorable, though fatal cases have been reported.
Treatment.—Hemorrhage from the bladder will be treated on the same principle as bleeding from any other part. If active in character, gallic acid in five to ten grain doses will give good results; or equal parts of oil of erigeron and oil of cinnamon, five to ten drops per dose, will be useful, while some will prefer ergot in from ten to sixty drop doses.
When the bleeding is due to a hemorrhoidal condition of the veins, such remedies as aesculus, collinsonia, and hamamelis will give better results. Hamamelis may be used in irrigating the bladder, as may a week solution of tannic acid, boracic acid, or alum.