Fluidextractum Belladonnae Radicis. U. S. (Br.) Fluidextract of Belladonna Root.

Botanical name: 

Fldext. Bellad. Rad.

Related entry: Hyoscyamus - Scopola

"One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Belladonna Root yields not less than 0.405 Gm. nor more than 0.495 Gm. of the alkaloids of belladonna root." U. S.

"Liquid Extract of Belladonna contains in 100 millilitres, 0.75 gramme of the alkaloids of Belladonna Root." Br.

Extractum Belladonnae Liquidum, Br., Liquid Extract of Belladonna; Extrait liquide de Racine de Belladone, Fr.; Flüssiges Tollkirschenwurzelextrakt, G.

"Belladonna Root, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes [or 35 ounces av., 120 grains]." U. S.

"Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A, using a mixture of five volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the menstruum, and reserving the first eight hundred mils [or 27 fluidounces, 24 minims] of the percolate.

"After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid and dilute this with enough menstruum to make one hundred mils of the finished Fluidextract contain 0.45 Gm. of the alkaloids of belladonna root." U. S.

"Belladonna Root, in No. 20 powder, 1000 grammes; Alcohol (90 per cent.), Distilled Water, of each a sufficient quantity. Exhaust the Belladonna Root with a mixture of seven volumes of the Alcohol and one volume of Distilled Water by the repercolation process until from every three grammes of the Root one millilitre of strong percolate has been obtained." Br.

"Assay.—Introduce 10 mils of Fluidextract of Belladonna Root into a separator and add 10 mils of distilled water and 2 mils of ammonia water. Completely extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly with chloroform and then extract the alkaloids from the chloroform solution by shaking out repeatedly with weak sulphuric acid until the alkaloids are completely removed. Collect the acid washings in a separator, add ammonia water until the solution is decidedly alkaline to litmus, and completely extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly with chloroform. Evaporate the combined chloroform washings to dryness, dissolve the alkaloids from the residue in exactly 5 mils of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S., using cochineal 1.8. as indicator.

"Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 28.92 milligrammes of the alkaloids of belladonna root (see Proximate Assays, Part III)." U. S.

"Determine the proportion of alkaloids in this strong percolate by the following process: Introduce into a separator 10 millilitres of the strong percolate, 50 millilitres of water, 2 millilitres of diluted sulphuric acid, and 10 millilitres of chloroform. Shake vigorously, set aside until complete separation has taken place, draw off the lower layer, and wash it with two successive portions, each of 10 millilitres, of water acidified with diluted sulphuric acid. Add the washings to the upper layer left in the separator. Make the mixture distinctly alkaline with solution of ammonia, and extract the alkaloids by shaking with three successive portions, each of 10 millilitres of chloroform. Mix the chloroformic solutions, shake with 10 millilitres of water, allow separation to take place, draw off the lower layer into a beaker, and set aside for the chloroform to evaporate. Heat the residue on a water-bath for thirty minutes, add 10 millilitres of N/20 solution of sulphuric acid, warm gently until dissolved, and titrate back with N/20 solution of sodium hydroxide, tincture of cochineal being used as indicator. Deduct the number of millilitres of alkaline solution required from 10; the remainder, multiplied by 0.01446, gives the number of grammes of the alkaloids contained in 10 millilitres of the strong percolate. To the remainder of the strong percolate add sufficient of the alcoholic menstruum to produce .a Liquid Extract of Belladonna containing 0.75 gramme of the alkaloids of Belladonna Root in 100 millilitres. Examined by the foregoing process, Liquid Extract of Belladonna is found to contain in 100 millilitres 0.75 gramme of the alkaloids of Belladonna Root. Limit of error 0.05 gramme in excess or defect. This Liquid Extract contains 0.75 gramme of the alkaloids of Belladonna Root in 100 millilitres; 110 minims contains 3/4 grain." Br.

The British liquid extract, 1914, represented several radical improvements in British pharmacy,—i.e., the use of repercolation with absence of heat in the process, and standardization, thus making the end product bear a definite relation towards the quantity of active constituents found in the root (0.75 per cent.). It is based upon the formula proposed by R. A. Cripps. (P. J., 1895, 795.) It will be observed that the alkaloidal standards of the U. S. and Br. Pharmacopoeias are not identical; the U. S. fluid-extract is made from the standardized drug (belladonna root) (0.45 per cent.); the British liquid extract is made from the unstandardized drug and hence the standard for the liquid extract can be made stronger (0.75 per cent.). The fluidextract of the root is a good preparation, of reddish-brown color, very different in appearance from the deep-green fluidextract of the leaves which is often seen in the market.

Dose, from one to two minims (0.06-0.12 mil) of the British liquid extract, not more than one minim (0.06 mil).

Off. Prep.—Emplastrum Belladonnae, Br.; Extractum Belladonnae Siccum, Br.; Linimentum Belladonnae, U. S., Br.; Unguentum Belladonnae, Br.

The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.