Canella. N. F. IV.—The N. F. describes it as "the dried inner bark of Canella Winterana (Linne) Gaertner (Fam. Canellaceae). In quills usually from 1 to 3 dm. in length and from 1 to 4 cm. in thickness, occasionally two or three times this size, or in irregular fragments of quills, from 1.5 to 5 mm. in thickness and 2 to 3 cm. in width, the outer periderm mostly removed; outer surface light brownish-yellow or pale orange-brown, more or less scaly, with a very few shallow fissures, often more or less reticulate with slight ridges; inner surface paler, somewhat smooth, but showing coarse, longitudinal striae; fracture short and sharp, pale yellow, with an irregular, slightly darker band just inside of the center. Odor slight (Unless the bark is heated, then aromatic, resembling that of cinnamon; taste aromatic, warm, somewhat bitter and mucilaginous. The powdered drug is light brown to brownish-red and, when examined under the microscope, exhibits numerous, isodiametric, thick-walled stone cells about 0.075 mm. in diameter, the walls with simple or branching pores; calcium oxalate in rosette aggregates up to 0.05 mm. in diameter; starch grains simple or two- to three-compound up to 0.02 mm. in diameter; oil cells with suberized walls numerous. Canella yields not more than 7 per cent. of ash." N. F. It was formerly recognized by the U. S. and Br. Pharmacopoeias. The tree is a native of Florida and the Bahama and West India Islands. The bark of the branches, which is the part employed in medicine, is loosened and deprived of its epidermis by beating. After removal from the tree it is dried in the shade. It enters commerce solely from the Bahamas, where it is known as cinnamon bark, or as white wood bark. At first it was considered to be a variety of cinnamon bark and was at one time confused with Winter's bark. Boiling water extracts nearly one-fourth of its weight; but the infusion, though bitter, has comparatively little of the warmth and pungency of the bark. It yields all its virtues to alcohol, forming a bright yellow tincture, which is rendered milky by the addition of water. Canella bark yields from distillation from 0.75 to 1.25 per cent. of a volatile oil, having an odor resembling that of a mixture of cajeput and clove. It contains benzoyl eugenol; 1-pinene; cineol and caryophyllene. The bark yielded to Flückiger 0.74 per cent. of oil. According to John P. Prey, it contains volatile oil, 1.28 per cent.; resin, 8.2 per cent.; mannite, 8 per cent.; ash, 8.9 per cent.; also starch, bitter principle, albumen, and cellulose. (A. J. P., 1884, 1.) Canella has been sometimes confounded with Winter's bark, from which, however, it differs widely. (See Wintera.. It is a mild, aromatic tonic, very acceptable to the stomach, and especially as an addition to tonic or purgative medicines. It is scarcely ever prescribed except in combination. Its best known compound is the famous Pulvis Aloe et Canellae (see Part III), commonly known as Hiera Picra, literally "Sacred Bitters," from the esteem in which it was once held. In the West Indies it is employed by the negroes as a condiment and as an antiscorbutic. Dose, ten to forty grains (0.65-2.6 Gm.).
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.