Oil of Orange Flowers.
Oil of Orange Flowers.N. F. IV (U. S. P. 1890). Oleum Aurantii Florum. Oil of Neroli. Oleum Naphae, G.—"A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowers of the Bitter Orange, Citrus aurantium amara Linné (Citrus vulgaris Risso, Citrus Bigaradia Risso). (Fam. Rutaceae). It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles, in a cool place, protected from light." U. S., 1890. N. F.
This oil, official in the U. S. P., 1890, is employed for its odor and taste, and is largely used as an ingredient in cologne water, perfumes, etc. The best quality of oil of neroli, as it is universally called in commerce, comes from Nice, and is derived from the flowers of the Citrus Aurantium sinensis L., or sweet orange, by distillation with water; this is called neroli petale. The next quality is obtained in the same way, but by using the blossoms of the Citrus Bigaradia Risso, or bitter orange: this is called neroli bigarade; while an inferior sort, essence de petit grain, is made by distilling the leaves and unripe fruit. This should not be classed with neroli, as it is unworthy of the name. Oil of petit grain citronnier is a fragrant oil, distilled from the leaves and twigs of the lemon tree; it closely resembles the essence de petit grain which is made from the orange leaves and fruit. (C. D., 1897, 53.)
It is officially described as follows:
"Oil of Orange Flowers is a pale yellow, slightly fluorescent, neutral liquid, having a distinctive fragrant odor similar to that of orange blossoms and an aromatic, at first sweet then somewhat bitter, taste.
"It is soluble in an equal volume of alcohol, the solution having a violet fluorescence and a neutral reaction to litmus paper. Also soluble in two volumes of 80 per cent. alcohol, the solution becoming cloudy on the further addition of alcohol of the same percentage.
"Specific gravity: 0.868 to 0.880 at 25° C. (77° F.).
"It is dextrorotatory, the angle of rotation varying from +1° 30' to +5°, in a 100 mm. tube, at 25° C. (77° F.).
Under the name of nerolin an artificial product has been placed upon the market in the form of a white crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and fixed oils and almost insoluble in water. It is used by soap makers as a substitute for oil of neroli, and is said to be ten times as strong. This compound is said to be the ethyl ether of β-naphthol. (Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1893, 2706.) It is also used in the manufacture of eau-de-Cologne with advantage instead of neroli oil. (Schim. Rep., April, 1893.) Oil of neroli of excellent quality is now produced artificially; Schimmel & Co. state that it contains pinene, camphene, dipentene, terpineol, phenyl, acetic acid, benzole acid, decylic aldehyde, and linalool.