Extractum Hyoscyami. U. S., Br. Extract of Hyoscyamus.
Related entries: Hyoscyamus
"Extract of Hyoscyamus yields not less than 0.22 per cent. nor more than 0.28 per cent. of the alkaloids of hyoscyamus. One gramme of the Extract represents about four grammes of hyoscyamus." U. S. "Extract of Hyoscyamus contains in 100 grammes 0.3 gramme of the alkaloids of Hyoscyamus Leaves." Br.
Extract of Henbane; Extrait de Jusquiame (feuille), Fr. Cod.; Extractum Hyoscyami, P. G.; Bilsenkrautextrakt, G.; Estratto di giusquiamo idroalcoolico. It.; Extracto alcoholico de beleno, Sp.
"Hyoscyamus, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes [or 35 ounce's av., 1.20 grains]; Glucose, Alcohol, Water, each, a sufficient quantity. Moisten the powder with sufficient of a mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water, pack it firmly in a cylindrical percolator and add enough menstruum, using the same proportion of alcohol and water as before, to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed slowly, gradually adding menstruum of the same strength until the drug is exhausted. Recover the alcohol by distillation and evaporate the residue, with frequent stirring, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. (158° F.), until it is reduced to a pilular consistence. Mix the mass thoroughly and weigh it. Assay a portion of this extract as directed below, and, from the alkaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the mass and to this add enough glucose to make the finished Extract contain 0.25 per cent. of the alkaloids of hyoscyamus. Mix thoroughly." U. S.
"Hyoscyamus Leaves, in No. 40 powder, Alcohol (70 per cent.) of each, a sufficient quantity. Reduce ten grammes of the Hyoscyamus Leaves to No. 60 powder, and determine the proportion of alkaloids present by the process described under 'Belladonnae Folia.' Moisten one thousand grammes of the Hyoscyamus Leaves with two hundred and fifty millilitres of the Alcohol, pack firmly in a percolator, and percolate with more of the Alcohol until foul-thousand millilitres of percolate have been obtained. Determine the proportion of total solids in the percolate by evaporating twenty millilitres, drying the residue at 80° C. (176° F.), and weighing. Determine also the proportion of alkaloids in the percolate by the process described under 'Tinctura Belladonnae.' Having thus determined the proportion of total solids and of alkaloids in the percolate, proceed as directed under 'Extractum Belladonnae Siccum' to prepare a dry Extract of Hyoscyamus containing 0.3 per cent. of alkaloids. Examined by the process described under 'Extractum Belladonnae Siccum,' Extract of Hyoscyamus is found to contain in 100 grammes 0.3 gramme of the alkaloids of Hyoscyamus Leaves. Limit of error 0.015 gramme in excess or defect." Br.
"This Extract may be used when the Extractum Hyoscyami of the International Agreement is required. It contains 0.3 per cent. of the alkaloids of Hyoscyamus Leaves." Br.
"Assay.—Proceed as directed under Extractum Belladonna Foliorum (Pilular), modifying the process there given by using 5 Gm. of Extract of Hyoscyamus instead of 2 Gm. of extract of belladonna leaves. Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 28.92 milligrammes of the alkaloids of hyoscyamus." U. S.
The U. S. P. IX introduced a special process for this extract, instead of evaporating the fluid extract as did the U. S. P. VIII. The British Pharm., 1914, discarded the process for making the extract from the fresh leaves and adopted percolation and evaporation of the percolate of dried leaves so that both pharmacopoeias are practically in accord. The strength is not quite the same, the U. S. P. IX requires not less than 0.22 per cent. nor more than 0.28 per cent. of alkaloids while the Br. Pharm., 1914, requires not less than 0.3 per cent. of alkaloids. For an account of the disadvantages of the extract from the fresh leaves see U. S. Dispensatory, 19th ed., p. 478.
Dose, from one to two grains (0.065-0.13 Gm.).
Off. Prep.—Pilulae Cartharticae Vegetabiles, N. F.; Pilula Colocynthidis et Hyoscyami, Br. (N. F.); Pilulae Laxativae Post Partum, N. F.