Oleum Cadinum. U. S., Br. Oil of Cade.
Ol. Cadin. [Cade Oil, Oil of Juniper Tar, Oleum Juniperi Empyreumaticum]
Related entries: Oil of Juniper
"An empyreumatic oil obtained by the dry distillation of the wood of Juniperus Oxycedrus Linné (Fam. Pinaceae); U. S. "Oil of Cade is an empyreumatic oily liquid obtained by the destructive distillation of the woody portions of Juniperus Oxycedrus. Linn." Br.
Juniper Tar Oil; Huile de Cade, Fr.; Kadeol, Kadil, G.
The Juniperus Oxycedrus, Linné, prickly cedar, or large brown-fruited juniper, is a common tree in the "waste places and stony hill-sides of the Mediterranean districts of Northern Africa, Spain, Portugal, and France, reaching up in its distribution as high as 3000 feet in the Apennines. It commonly attains a height of from ten to twelve feet, sometimes much more, with long spreading branches and slender drooping branchlets, covered with light-green scattered and spreading leaves of medium size, lanceolate or awl-shaped, sharply pointed, having two furrows on their upper edge. The fruits are numerous, large (half an inch in diameter), globular, shining, reddish or chestnut-brown, and marked on the apex with two white scars indicating the separation of the carpels.
From the heart-wood of this tree the oil of cade is prepared by a process of distillation in ovens per descensum, similar to that practised in the making of ordinary tar. It is a brownish or dark brown liquid, much more mobile and less thick than tar, having a tar-like but distinct odor, and a smoky, acrid, bitterish, disagreeable taste. In mass it is dark and opaque, but in very thin layers clear; the oil contains phenols and a sesquiterpene termed cadinene, C14H24, the latter boiling at from 274° to 275° C. (525.2°-527° F.), and having a sp. gr. of 0.918 at 20° C. (68° F.).
"Oil of Cade is a dark brown, clear, thick liquid, having a tarry, empyreumatic odor and a warm, faintly aromatic, and bitter taste. It is almost insoluble in water, but imparts to it an acid reaction. It is only partially soluble in alcohol or petroleum benzin, completely soluble in 3 volumes of ether, soluble in amyl alcohol, chloroform, glacial acetic acid, or oil of turpentine. Specific gravity: 0.980 to 1.055 at 25° C. (77° F.). Shake 1 part of Oil of Cade with 20 parts of warm distilled water and filter; separate portions of this filtrate give a red coloration with a few drops of ferric chloride solution (1 in 1000) and reduce silver ammonium nitrate T.S. in the cold and alkaline cupric tartrate T.S. on heating. Agitate 1 mil of Oil of Cade with 15 mils of purified petroleum benzin, filter the benzin solution, add an equal volume of copper acetate solution (1 in 100), shake the mixture and then allow it to separate. On adding an equal volume of ether to the separated benzin solution, it produces no intensely green coloration and does not become colored more than light yellow to brown (rosin and rosin oil)." U. S.
"A dark reddish-brown or nearly black, oily liquid. Empyreumatic odor; taste aromatic, bitter and acrid. Specific gravity about 0.990. Soluble in ether, and in chloroform; partially soluble in cold, almost wholly soluble in hot alcohol (90 per cent.); very slightly soluble in water, the filtered aqueous solution being almost colorless and acid to litmus. Yields no reaction for pine tar when tested as follows: Shake 1 millilitre of the Oil vigorously with 15 millilitres of petroleum spirit, and filter; to 10 millilitres of the filtrate add 10 millilitres of solution of copper acetate, shake vigorously, and set aside until separation into two layers is complete; 5 millilitres of the upper layer, when mixed with 10 millilitres of ether, become pale brownish-yellow, but not green (absence of pine tar)." Br.
Yaucher recommends acetone for disguising the odor of oil of cade, and proposes an oil of cade collodion in which acetone is used to dissolve the pyroxylin instead of the usual solvents. (C. D., 1897, 16.)
Uses.—Oil of cade has been used locally, by the peasantry, in the treatment of the cutaneous diseases of domestic animals almost from time immemorial. More recently it has been largely employed in the treatment of chronic eczema, psoriasis, and other skin diseases of man, and has also been found to be an efficient parasiticide in psora and favus. It is applied, sometimes of full strength, sometimes diluted with a bland oil, well rubbed into the affected parts with the fingers, or with a cloth, and is also made into ointments, and especially into soaps. A glycerite is also prepared. It is very rarely, if ever, used internally, but probably resembles oil of tar in its physiological action.
Dose, one to three minims (0.06-0.2 mil).
Off. Prep.—Linimentum Saponis Mollis Compositum, N. F.; Petroxolinum Cadini, N. F.; Petroxolinum Sulphuratum Compositum, N. F.; Unguentum Sulphuris Compositum, N. F.