Kino. U. S., Br.
Kino. U. S., Br.
"The spontaneously dried juice of Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxburgh (Fam. Leguminosae)." U. S. "Kino is the juice obtained from incisions in the trunk of Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., heated to boiling and evaporated to dryness. Known in commerce as East Indian, Malabar, Madras, or Cochin kino." Br.
Gummi (s. Resina) Kino; Indian Kino, Malabar Kino; Kino de l'Inde, Fr. Cod.; Kino, G.; Goma quino, Sp.
The term kino was originally applied to a vegetable extract or inspissated juice taken to London from the western coast of Africa, and introduced to the notice of the profession by Fothergill. Vegetable products obtained from various other parts of the world, resembling kino in appearance and properties, afterwards received the same name, and some confusion and uncertainty still exist, in relation to the botanical and commercial history of the drug. We shall first consider the general properties of official kino, then the several varieties.
Properties.—The official description is as follows: "In small, brittle angular fragments, usually considerably less than 15 mm. in diameter, varying in color from dark reddish-brown to reddish-black; when crushed upon a slide and examined under the microscope the angular fragments are more or less translucent with a glass-like, conchoidal surface, the thinner pieces having a yellowish-red or deep brownish-red color, the pieces often being marked by nearly parallel, curved and straight lines; inodorous; taste very astringent; when masticated it colors the saliva somewhat pink. The powder is of a dark brick-red color; upon the addition of water, the sharp angular fragments assume a deep rich-red color and become more or less rounded and separate into innumerable, small, granular particles among which are a large number of rod-shaped bacteria. On mounting powdered Kino in alcohol the fragments at first assume a deep red color, then mostly dissolve, leaving a number of small, colorless granules and indistinguishable, cellular fragments. Kino is only partly soluble in cold water, and not less than 40 per cent. is soluble in boiling water. The latter solution, when cooled and filtered, shows a faintly acid reaction, gives a dark green precipitate with ferric chloride T.S. and a reddish-violet color with alkalies. The yield of alcoholic extractive is not less than 45 per cent. Kino contains not more than 12 per cent. of moisture, and yields not more than 3 per cent. of ash." U. S.
"In small, angular, glistening, opaque, reddish-black, brittle fragments; transparent and ruby-red in thin laminae. Inodorous; taste very astringent. Almost entirely soluble in alcohol (90 per cent.), slowly and incompletely soluble m cold water, not less than 75 per cent. soluble in boiling water, the solutions being deep red in color. Almost entirely insoluble in ether. An aqueous solution (1 in 20) yields a voluminous reddish precipitate with dilute mineral acids, and, when largely diluted with water, a greenish-black precipitate with T. Sol. of ferric chloride. Ash not more than 2.5 per cent. In India and the Eastern Divisions of the Empire, Butea Gum (Buteae Gummi) may be employed in making the official preparations for which Kino (distinguished in commerce as East Indian, Malabar, Madras, or Cochin kino) is directed to be used." Br.
If in large masses, it may be reduced without difficulty into minute fragments. It is without odor, and has a bitter, highly astringent taste, with a somewhat sweetish after-taste. It burns with little flame, and does not soften with heat. It imparts its virtues and a deep red color to water and alcohol, but is nearly insoluble in ether. Cold water forms with it a clear infusion. Boiling water dissolves it more largely, and the saturated decoction becomes turbid on cooling, and deposits a reddish sediment. The tincture is not disturbed by water. When long kept, it often gelatinizes, and loses its astringency. (See Tinctura Kino.) Kino undoubtedly consists chiefly of a modification of tannic acid or tannin, which has received the name of kino-tannic acid, with extractive, gum, and sometimes probably a little resin, but we need a careful analysis of the different well-ascertained varieties. The aqueous solution is precipitated by gelatin, the soluble salts of iron, silver, lead, and antimony, mercuric chloride, and sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids. The precipitate with iron is of an olive or greenish-black color. The alkalies favor the solubility of kino in water, but essentially change its nature and destroy its astringency.
1. EAST INDIA KINO. Malabar Kino.—This is the variety at present probably most used and most highly esteemed, and the only one recognized by the British and United States Pharmacopoeias. Its origin was long unknown. It is now ascertained, through the researches of Pereira, Royle, Wight, and others, to be the product of Pterocarpus Marsupium, a lofty tree growing upon the mountains of the Malabar coast of Hindostan. Kino is the juice of the tree extracted through longitudinal incisions in the bark and afterwards dried in the sun. Upon drying it breaks into small fragments, and is put into wooden boxes for exportation. It is collected near Tellicherry, and exported from Bombay. It is sometimes imported into this country directly from the East Indies, but more commonly from London. From a communication in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, by F. Mason, it appears that kino is also collected in the Tenasserim provinces, in Farther India, and has been exported from Maulmain to Europe. It is produced by a tree called Pa-douck, which Christison recognized from a description furnished to him by Begbie, of Maulmain, as Pterocarpus Marsupium, so that this kino has the same origin as that from Malabar. Pterocarpus indicus, of the Mauritius Islands, where it is known as sang-dragon, also yields a red kino to commerce.
When kino is boiled in water, the decoction deposits, on cooling, a bright red substance, and a similar deposition takes place when a cold filtered aqueous solution is long exposed with a broad surface to the air. According to Hennig, kino consists of tannic acid about 40 per cent, with a trace of gallic acid, kinoic acid, pectin, ulmic acid, and inorganic salts, with excess of earthy bases. (See A. J. P., xv, 544.) C. Etti obtained a new constituent, kinoin, by extracting kino with ether. He finally adopted the following method as more practicable. One part of gum kino is added to 2 parts of boiling diluted (1 to 5) hydrochloric acid. Kino-red immediately separates as a soft mass, becoming gradually solid on cooling, while the kinoin, mixed with a small quantity of kino-red, remains in solution. The solid residue is once more boiled with water, the liquids are united and shaken with ether. The ethereal solution, on evaporation, leaves a crystalline reddish residue, which is dissolved in hot water, on tile cooling of which tolerably pure crystals of kinoin are obtained. By continued recrystallization they are obtained colorless. Their formula is C14H12O6, and kino-red is the anhydride of this:
2C14H12O6—H2O = C28H22O11
This kino-red heated to 160° to 170° C. (320°-338° F.), parts with a molecule of water and yields a lower anhydride, C28H20O10. Both anhydrides are precipitated by gelatin, but kinoin itself is not. When heated with hydrochloric acid to 120° to 130° C. (248°-266° F.), kinoin yields methyl chloride, gallic acid, and catechol, and hence probably has the constitution of a guaiacol or methyl-catechol gallate. Kino contains about 1.5 per cent. of kinoin. (Ber. d. Chem. Ges.; N. R., Feb., 1897.) Kremel found Malabar kino, Butea gum, eucalyptus kino, and the kino from Coccoloba uvifera to be free from Etti's kinoin, but to contain a body acquiring, like kinoin, a red color with ferric chloride, which proved to be pyrocatechuic acid; this was present either alone or mixed with gallic acid. (A. J. P., 1883, 267.) Some doubt was also thrown upon the value of Etti's conclusions by White (P. J., 1903, p. 676), who failed to find several of the constituents reported by Etti. The true chemistry of kino may therefore be considered to be in a somewhat doubtful state. This is probably due to the fact that many different drugs have appeared in commerce under that name. Kino contains in its natural condition an oxidizing enzyme or oxidase which is the cause of the gelatinization which takes place in preparations of this drug. This enzyme can be destroyed by heat and advantage is taken of this fact in making Tinctura Kino (which see). In an examination made by David Hooper of ten varieties of East Indian kino, the proportion of tannic acid was found, after thoroughly drying the kino, to vary from 80 to 97 per cent. of the whole mass. (Agricultural Ledger of India, No. 11, 1901.)
It is said that catechu, broken into small fragments, has sometimes been sold as kino. Genuine kino is sometimes substituted by the extract of krameria. The latter is more brittle and dissolves, more quickly in water.
2. WEST INDIA OR JAMAICA KINO.—This is believed to be the product of the Coccoloba uvifera L., or sea-side grape. It grows in the West Indies and neighboring parts of the continent. The kino is said to be obtained by evaporating a decoction of the wood and bark, which are very astringent.
Although it has been many years since any large quantity appeared in our markets, it may occasionally be met. It is contained in large gourds, into which it was evidently poured while in a liquid or semi-liquid state, and then allowed to harden. When taken from the gourd it breaks into fragments of various sizes, upon an average about as large as a hazelnut, and having some tendency to the rectangular form. The consistence of these fragments is uniform, their surface smooth and shining, and their color a dark reddish-brown approaching to black. They are, however, neither so glistening nor so black as the East India kino. In mass they are quite opaque, but in thin splinters are translucent and of a ruby redness. They are readily broken by the fingers into smaller fragments, are easily pulverized, and yield a dull-reddish powder, considerably lighter colored than that of the East Indian variety. The West India kino is without odor, and has a very astringent, bitterish taste, with a scarcely observable sweetish after-taste. It adheres to the teeth when chewed, although rather less than the East Indian variety, and colors the saliva red. The solubility of Jamaica kino was very carefully examined by Robert Bridges, who found that cold water dissolved 89 per cent., and alcohol 94 per cent. The portion dissolved by alcohol and not by water was probably of a resinous nature, as it appeared to be viscid, and very much impeded the filtration of the aqueous solution. Considering the nature of this substance, the form of kino in which it was found is probably, like that from the East Indies, an inspissated juice. Guibourt, who states that Jamaica kino is but slightly dissolved by cold water, must have operated on a different product.
3. SOUTH AMERICAN KINO. Caraccas Kino.—In 1839, an astringent extract was described which had been introduced into our market, derived from Caraccas, and known by that name to the druggists. It is probably the same as that described by Guibourt, in the last edition of his History of Drugs, as the kino of Colombia. As imported, this variety of kino is in large masses, some weighing several pounds, covered with thin leaves, or exhibiting marks of leaves upon their unbroken surface, externally very dark, and internally of a deep reddish-brown or dark port-wine color. Some of the masses are very impure, containing pieces of bark, wood, leaves, etc.; others are more homogeneous, and almost free from impurities. The masses are broken up by means of a mill so as to resemble East India kino, from which, however, this variety differs in being more irregular, less sharply angular, more powdery, and less black. In appearance, taste, odor and other sensible properties this kino closely resembles the West India variety. It is not improbable that they are derived from the same plant, and there is no difficulty in supposing that this may be the Coccoloba uvifera, as that tree grows as well upon the continent as in the islands. South American kino was found by Bridges to yield 93.5 per cent. to cold water, and 93 per cent. to alcohol; so that, while it has almost the same solubility as Jamaica kino in alcohol, it is somewhat more soluble in cold water. The aqueous solution in this case was not embarrassed by the adhesive matter which impeded the filtration in the former variety, and the want of a minute proportion of resinous matter in the South American kino is the only apparent difference between the two drugs.
4. AFRICAN KINO.—The original kino employed by Fothergill was known to be the product of a tree growing in Senegal, and upon the banks of the Gambia, on the western coast of Africa, but the precise character of the tree was not ascertained until a specimen, sent home by Muugo Park during his last journey, enabled the English botanists to decide that it was the Pterocarpus erinaceus of Lamarck and Poiret. A particular account of Pterocarpus erinaceus and its concrete juice, with a figure, by W. F. Daniell, is contained in the P. J. for August, 1854 (vol. xiv, p. 55). The importation of African kino has long ceased. In 1896, however, a consignment of African kino reached London. It was examined by E. M. Holmes, who stated that it was evidently yielded by P. erinaceus. (C. D., 1896, 226.) It is said to be still used by the Portuguese of Angola, under the name of Sangue de Drago. As described by Fothergill, the African kino, for which he proposed the name of gummi rubrum astringens Gambinense, was in lumps of about the size of those of gum Senegal or dragon's blood, and so similar in appearance to the latter that a good judge might easily be deceived. These lumps were hard, brittle, opaque, and almost black, but minute fragments were reddish and transparent like garnet. The drug was inodorous, of a strongly astringent and sweetish taste, and soluble in water to the extent of about five or six parts out of seven, forming a deep red astringent infusion. There can be little doubt that this variety of kino is a concrete juice, which exudes either spontaneously or from wounds in the bark, and hardens in the air. (Med. Obs. and Inq., i, 358.)
MACARANGA KINO is obtained from Macaranga Roxburghii Wright, of the Deccan peninsula. It occurs in the form of odorless, tasteless tears or irregular masses. The tears have fibrous fractures and when immersed in water yield unravelling fibers giving the appearance of a sea anemone. According to Hooper, this kino yields from 6 to 15 per cent. of a peculiar tannin and is closely allied to Butea kino, from which it is distinguished by fibrous tears and the fact that it contains so much gum which swells without dissolving in water. (P. J., lxvi, 616.)
MYRISTICA KINO.—There has been produced in Southern India a kino consisting of (Smaller or larger angular pieces, of deep garnet color, in thin fragments, and having the general characteristics of Malabar kino; according to E. Schaer, it is a product of Myristica malabarica, of M. fragrans, and probably of other species of the genus. In all important respects these kinos are said to correspond with Malabar kino, but to be distinguishable by containing crystals of calcium tartrate. Myristica Kino is probably a distinctive product from the so-called Syndai varnish, a rich red fluid obtained from the Myristica gibbosa Hook. f., and employed in Assam as a varnish. This varnish is highly astringent and after exposure becomes perfectly impervious, the changes being due to the presence of a ferment or enzyme. As has been shown by D. Hooper (P. J., June 20, 1903), Syndai varnish, if kept in corked bottles, gelatinizes in a few weeks. Edmund White made an investigation into the cause of the gelatinization of tincture of kino (P. J., May, 1903), from which it appeared that this phenomenon was due to the presence in the kino of an enzyme belonging to the oxydases, and this enzyme was subsequently isolated by David Hooper from the fresh juice of Myristica gibbosa. (Proc. A. Ph. A., 1903, 733.) It is believed by White that this enzyme may be eliminated from the official as well as other kinos by a judicious method of collection, and considers it probable that the following one, adopted by J. Q. F. Marshall and described in the "Agricultural Ledger" (1900, No. 11, 381), will accomplish this: "A longitudinal cut is made with an axe or knife, called acha katti, through the bark of the trees, down to the cambium, about 1 ½ feet long, and side outs are made to lead into this. A bamboo tube is then fixed at the bottom of the main incision in order to catch the juice. In the course of about twenty-four hours the flow of gum ceases and the bamboo is taken down. When several of these bamboo cups are nearly full they are taken to headquarters and emptied into a large cauldron and the juice boiled. During the boiling, the impurities, consisting of pieces of bark, wood and leaves, rise to the surface and are skimmed off. When sufficiently concentrated to the consistence of a thick extract it is exposed to the sun, in thin layers, in shallow vessels until it is dry enough to crumble to pieces. The kino is then weighed and packed away in wooden cases." (P. J., 1903, 702.)
Botany or Blue Mountain kino is obtained from Angophora lanceolata Cav. Colombo kino is obtained from a number of species of Angophora. Hooper (P. J., 1908, xxvii, 161) reports the occurrence of three new astringent plant juices or kinos. They are derived from Jatropha Curcas, from South Salem; Xylia dolabriformis, from Burma; and Parkia insignis ("Myauk-ta-nyet"), also from Burma.
Uses.—Kino is powerfully astringent, and in this country is much used for the suppression of morbid discharges. In diarrhea, not attended with febrile excitement or inflammation, it is often an excellent adjunct to opium and the absorbent medicines, and is a favorite addition to chalk mixture. It is also used in chronic dysentery when astringents are admissible; in leucorrhea and diabetes; and in passive hemorrhages, particularly those from the uterus and the intestines. The infusion may be made by pouring eight fluidounces of boiling water on two drachms of the extract, and straining when cool; aromatics may be added, if deemed advisable. The dose of this infusion is a fluidounce (30 mils). The proportion of alcohol in the tincture renders it frequently an unsuitable preparation.
Dose, eight to thirty grains (0.5-2.0 Gm.).