This is a page to be proofread from Salmon's Botanologia, 1710.
Chap. LVIII. Bear's Breech.
The Names. It is called in Greek, *α^Θ©-*α?4»Θ* · in -L////7, Acanthus, Acantha, Branca "I >///w: and in Brank XJrfine, or
II. T/;t* K/Wj.It is twofold i. The Garden kind, called in G/wA: *,^.-6©- »f*s^, «#Af@-, mxAupvxx&y •EpW^rd* · inLtf//^, Acanthos Salivus, Acanthahortensis, Ptdercs, Melamphyllos, and Herpacantha, A> canthus verus Cf larois, Branca Vrfina Levis : and in
2. iC/W, is called in Greek, 3^6©-eye*©-,
in Acanthus Sylvestris, and Aculeatus, Acan-
tha Spinofa Cf aculeata, Herbacantha : in Englifi, the W///ti or Prickly Bears-breech. Acanthos is the common name for all Thirties, but here it is used by the figure, Antonomafu, qua loco proprif nomink ponitur Appellativum, ut Civitas pro Londino.
III. The Description. Garden Bears Breech has
a Root thick and long, with many long firings fpreading far and deep in the ground, of a blackish or dark colour on the outside, and white within, full of a very clammy Juice, more mucilaginous than the Leaves, fi full of life, that if a small piece be but left in the ground, it will spring up again, and bring forth the whole Plant, but requires a Jhelter or defence from the extremity of the Winter. From this Root there jhoots forth many lerge, thick, smooth, fad green Leaves upon the ground, with a thick middle rtbJwided into many farts,with great and deepgafhes on the edges, from among which (after it has Rood long in a convenient place ) rises up a reafonable great Stalk, three or four foot high, without either jmnt or branch thereon, set with some Leaves, and from the middle upwards, set with a fpike, as it were, of white hooded or gaping Flowers, standmg in brownish Husks somewhat sharp at the points, and ajmall long undivided Leaf under each Flower: af-
ter which come (in more hot Countries, but not in ours that I know of ) broad, flat, round, thick, brownish yellow Seed. Dodoneus says, that the Leaves are great, large, of a fid green colour, thick, grofs, smooth, and deeply cut in by the sides, like the leaves of Rocket.
IV. Wild Bears Breech has a Root not fpreading so deep, or so far as the former, nor so great in magnitude, but more tender, as less able to endure the Winters cold. From this Root rises up several long Leaves lying upon the ground, but much narrower, and more divided on the edges into smaller parts, and each part with small incisions, set with very sharp white prickles ; from among which a lesser and lower Stalk arises, with the like spiked heads of Flowers, and a few prickly Leaves thereon, in their way coming up, standing in more sharp and prickly husks than the former after which comes Seed, small as a little Pea, hard, black, and round. Gerard faith, that this Thifile is in Stalk, colour of Leaves, Flowers and Seed much like the first kind, but the Plant is jhorter and lower, and the Leaves pretty large, dented or jagged with many cuts and incisions, not only infomejew parts of the Leaves, as some other Thiftles, but very thickly dented or cloven, and having many jharp, large, white and hard prickles, about the sides of the divisions and cuts, not very easie to be handled or touched, without danger to the hands and fingers.
V. The Places. They naturally grow in Greece, Italy, Spain, and France h but with us, and in Holland, Germany, and other cold Countries, it is only to be found nouriihed up in Gardens. Dioscorides says it grows only in moist and stony places. The Wild grows in many places of Italy near the Sea, and Pena says, he found it in moist and gravelly places near to the Walls of Mompelier but with us it is only in Gardens.
VI. The Times. The Root keeps alive in Winter in hot Countries, and so with us, but sometimes it dies, if the weather is too cold: but in England that is rare in the Garden kind. The former flowers in June and sometimes in July ·, but yields no perfect Seed with us: the latter flowers later seldom or never giving with us any ripe Seed: but in those Countries where the Seed comes to perfection, it is always in Autumn, or lattei end of Summer.
VII. The Qualities. They feem to be Temperate in refpeft of heat, and drying in the first degree. They are Arthritick, and whilst green, Digestive, afterwards astringent, Drying, Rettorarive and Alterative.
VIII. The Specification. They are peculiar against Confumptions and Spitting of Blood.
IX. The Preparations. The Shops keep nothing of it: but you may make thereof, i. An Inspissate Juice, or Liquid. 2. An Essence. 3. A Decoction in Wine. 4. A Syrup. 5. AClyfier. 6. A Cataplasm.
A Saline Tincture.
X. The Liquid or Inspissate Juice, prevails against spitting of Blood, piffing of Blood, and the Phthi-fick, being laid to cure Confumptions, meaning those of the Lungs. Dose of the Liquid, one or two spoonfuls ·, of the Inspissate one or two drams, dif folved in Red Wine, or Tent, and so either of them to be taken.
XL The Essence. It has the Virtues of the former, besides which it stops Fluxes, and the Courfes in Women, and is prevalent against Ruptures in Children, and vehement Coughs. Dose one spoonful in Red Wine or Tent, Morning and Evening. Applied it is good against burnings.