Female Apothecary.—The "Ostseezeitung" states that recently, before the government examiners, a lady passed the examination as apothecary, and acquitted herself so well that she received the censure "excellent." It is the Deaconess Phillipina Mangelsdorff who was thus recognized as the first female apothecary in the Province of Pommerania, Prussia.
Influence which Coffee and Cacao exert as Food.—Dr. Rabuteau.—This paper contains the account of some experiments made with dogs, to which the author gave diets in one case consisting daily of 20 grms. of bread, 10 grms. of fresh butter, and 10 grms. of sugar; in the other case, 20 grms. of cacao, 10 grms. of sugar and an infusion of 20 grms. of well roasted coffee. From these experiments the author draws conclusions leading him to consider coffee and cacao as simply preventing de-nutrition. This view was objected to at the meeting by MM. Payen, Dumas, and Chevreul, whose lengthy discussions on this subject are reproduced (not in this journal). As regards cacao (commonly, but erroneously, in this country named cocoa), there can be no doubt that, containing as it does from 17 to 20 per cent of albuminous matter, with from 10 to 12 per cent of starch, from 40 to 50 per cent of fat, and among its mineral matter phosphates, it is food. M. Chevreul, very properly observes, among other matters, the existence of idiosyncrasy and its influence on the individual tastes, and hence also more or less on the action of various alimentary substances, pointing out that he himself has, from his earliest years, an invincible repugnance against wine, milk, fish, and various vegetables, none of which he ever partakes of, but for all that it would, of course, be absurd to deny the nutritive properties and value of these substances.—Chem. News. March 31st, 1871.
The After-taste of Quinine.—In practice there is often experienced a great difficulty in getting patients to take quinine, because of its after-taste, which to some is simply unbearable, and when antipathy thus exists, combined with a difficulty in swallowing pills, the therapeutic value of an important drug is lost. We find, and the fact may not be generally known, that the mastication of some acid fruit, as an apple or a pear, will permanently remove the disagreeable after-taste of quinine. The first mouthful of food should be well masticated and rolled through the month, so as to cleanse the teeth, etc., and then ejected. The second morsel may be swallowed, when it will be discovered that all taste of the quinine will be removed.—Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, June 8th, 1871, from Med. Press and Circular.
Dr. EHRLE, of Isny, makes known a very simple preparation of wool that he has found very serviceable in arresting hemorrhage after operations or from wounds. To prepare it he boils the finest carded wool for half an hour or an hour in a solution containing four per cent. of soda, then thoroughly washes it out in cool spring water, wrings it and dries it. The wool is thus effectually purified, and is now capable of imbibing fluids uniformly. It is then to be dipped two or three times in fluid chloride of iron diluted with one third of water, expressed and dried in a draught of air, but not in the sun or with high heat; finally it is carded out. Thus prepared it is of a beautiful yellow color, and feels like ordinary dry cotton wool. As it is highly hygroscopic, it must be kept dry, and when required to be transported must be packed in caoutchouc, or bladder. Charpie may be prepared in a similar manner, but on account of its coarse texture is not so effective as cotton wool, presenting a less surface for coagulation. When the wool is placed on a bleeding wound, it induces moderate contraction of the tissue, coagulation of the blood that has escaped, and subsequently coagulation of the blood that is contained within the injured vessels, and this arrests the hemorrhage. The coagulating power of the chloride of iron is clearly exalted by the extension of its surface that is in this way affected. The application of the prepared wool is not particularly painful, whilst, by sticking up the superfluous discharge and preventing its decomposition, it seems to operate favorably on the progress of the wound. The unpleasant secondary results that have led many practical surgeons to discard the use of the perchloride of iron do not occur with the wool when it is properly made and applied. In case of wounds where the bleeding proceeds from large and deep seated vessels, it may be used as a compress, a bandage being applied over it, or the wound may be plugged with it. It may also be employed with advantage in cases of profuse suppuration, to imbibe the discharge and purify the surface. He recommends that a small portion should be given to every soldier on going into action.—Med. and Surg. Journal.