Chap. 054. Bawm, Turkey and Syrian.
I. The Names. The first is called in Latin, Melissa Turcica, or Melissophillum, or Meliphyllum Turcicum: by Gesner in Hort. Cedromella, and Citrago Turcica, and in English, Turkey
II.The other is called in Latin; Melissa Syriaca, and by some Melissa Moluccana: by Matthiolus, Melissa Constantinopoltana: and by Tabernmontanus, Cardiaca Syriaca: by Lobel, Maseluc Turcorum. (Dracocephalum moldavica - Henriette)
III. The Kinds. The Turkey Bawm, is the Third Species, in our order: The Syrian, or Moluccan constitutes the Fourth Species, which are all that are necessary for us to consider in this Work. This Syrian Bawm, Authors will have to be twofold, viz. Levis and Aspera, or Aperior: or Odorata, and Inodorata. (Moluccella laevis - Henriette)
IV. The Description. The Turkey Bawm has a Root small and thready, which perishes every Year at the first approach of Winter, and therefore must be Sown fresh again, every Spring, from this Root rises up one square brownish green Stalk, two Feet high and sometimes more, if it grows in good Ground, spreading it self with two Branches from every Joint, where the Leaves are set; and this course is continued up almost to the Top. The heaves are narrower and longer than those of Common Garden Bawm, and more dented in about the edges, of a sweet Limmon scent, rather exceeding that of Common Bawm: they are rough also, and of a like Green Colour. The Flowers are gaping or hooded, growing at the Tops of the Branches at certain distances, standing in sharp, rough, pointed Husks; and they are of a blew or purplish blew Colour; but in some the Colour is perfectly white, whence several Authors would make several Kinds thereof, tho at the same time they differ in nothing but the Colour of the Flowers; but some say the heaves are of a fresher green Colour, which I have not yet observed. After the Flowers are past, then comes the Seed, which is black and roundish, with a white Spot in each Seed, whilst it is fresh, which afterwards in a manner Vanishes, not being so discernable when dry.
V. The Syrian Bawm, has a Woody thick Root, and full of strings, which perishes every Year. From whence rises up, a round billow Stalk, thick, and of a reddish Colour, about Two Feet high, branching forth variously on all sides up to the Top, on which are set shorter and rounder Leaves, at the end of longer Foot Stalks. The other Leaves stand also upon Foot Stalks, and much resemble those of the Common Bawm (for which reason, some Authors have taken this to be one of the Kinds thereof) somewhat less dented about the edges, than the Garden Kind. At the Joints of the Stalk, from the middle upwards, come forth round about it, certain hard, whitish Skins, small and round at the bottom, and wide open at the brims, a little prickly at the corners, and much like unto a Bell, being for the most part five Cornered. From the bottom of each of these,comes forth one Flower, somewhat small, and like to those of the Common Bawm, almost white in Colour, or with a small blush of Red therein. After they are past, in the bottom of the same skinny Bell, the Seed grows (but it very rarely comes to be Ripe with us) which is whitish and Cornered. The Plant has nothing of the smell of Bawm in it; but it is strong, and the Taste is bitter.
VI. The other Syrian Kind, which is called Asperior, differs not much from the former, as to its Form, yet it rises a litter higher, and grows somewhat greater but after the same Fashion: the Stalk of this is Four Square , and lightly hollowed or furrowed. The Leaves are somewhat longer and sharper on the edges. The Cups or Bells in which the Flowers grow are more prickly than the former, and much shorter at the corners of them, longer, more in number, and of a paler white Colour. The Tunnels of the Flowers are brownish, and not so white as the other ; and the Seed is three cornered, and sharp upwards like a Wedge.
VII. The Places. The Turkey Bawm grows naturally in Moldavia and several parts of Turky, from whence it is brought to us, and Nourish'd up in Gardens. The Syrian Bawm, called also Moluccan, was thought by Matthiolus to grow in the Molucca Islands (whence that Name.) But Parkinson says he was mistaken: and that Sequinus an Italian sent them from Syria to Verona, from whence they were brought to us, and nourish'd up in Gardens only.
VIII. The Times. The Turkey Bawm Flowers the latter end of June, or in July: but the Syrian Kinds, seldom Flower before the middle of August, for which reason, they seldom give any good Seed, which the Turkey Bawm fails not to do.
IX. The Qualities. The Turkey Bawm agrees herein wholly with our Common Garden Bawm. The Syrian Bawm is hot in one Degree and dry in two, Hysterick, Vulnerary, and Alterative.
X. The Specification. The Turkey Bawm is peculiar against Vertigo's, Faintings and Sickness at Heart. The Syrian resists fits of the Mother, and Vapors from the Womb.
XI. The Preparations. The Shops keep nothing of them, but you may Prepare therefrom,
I. A Powder from the Leaves and Flowers.
2. A Decoction in Wine.
3. An Expressed Juice,
4. A Spirituous Tincture.
5. An Oily Tincture.
6. A Saline Tincture.
7. An Essence.
8. A Syrup.
9. A Fixed Salt.
10. A Balsam or Oil.
11. A Cataplasm.
XII. All these several Preparations of the Turkey Bawm, have the same Virtues, Uses and Doses, with those of our Common Garden Bawm; so that no more need be said of them in this place, and therefore we refer you to their respective Titles in the Chapter aforegoing.
XIII. The Pouder of the Syrian Bawm, heats, rarifies, and cleanses.
XIV. The Decoction of it in Wine, Kills Worms, and is good against the pains of the Mother, Vapors, and the like. Dose iv. ounces.
XV. The Expressed Juice of it, Kills Worms, and gives relief in Histerick Fits, pains of the Spleen, and the like. Dose j. ounce or more.
XVI. The Spirituous Tincture of it, Expels Poyson or Venom, and is good against the Plague or Pestilence, and all sorts of Malign fevers. Dose half an ounce.
XVII. The Oily Tincture of it, Gives ease in the Colick, given to one Dram in Ale or Wine: and outwardly applyed helps Palsies, and eases Pains from a cold Cause, in any part of the Body.
XVIII. The Saline Tincture of it, Is a Specifick for killing Worms in the Body, whether of old or young. Dose j. or ij. Drams in Wine or Ale.
XIX. The Essence of it, Kills Worms, and cures Fits of the Mother, Convulsions of the Bowels, Etc Dose from ij. Drams to vj. in Ale or Wine.
XX. The Syrup of it, has the Virtues of the Essence, but is much weaker, and is mostly used as a Vehicle to convey the other Preparations in.
XXI. The Fixed Salt of it, removes Obstructions of the Spleen and Womb. Dose to xx grains of it, in a Decoction of the Herb, sweetned with the Syrup thereof
XXII. The Balsam or Oil of it, is Vulnerary, and eases Pains of the Spleen and Joints.
XXIII. The Cataplasm of it, Discusses Tumors arising from Cold and Wind, and gives ease in the Spleen being applied to the Region thereof.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter was proofread by Therese Richardson.