Chap. 053. Bawm Garden and Bastard.
I. The Names. It is called in Arabick, Bederengie, Bedarungi, Cederenzegum, Turun-gen, Marmacor : in Greek, Μελισοφύλλων, μελιούλλοv, μελιτάνα, id eft, Apiastrum, μελιτάνα. Apes delectentur, Discor. lib. 3. cap.18. Pliny lib. 21. cap. 20. Melysophyllon & Melittis : in Latin, Melissa. ab Apibus qua etiam μελισσα dicuntur: and in English, Bawm.
The Kinds. There are six several kinds of Bawm of which Authors treat: viz.
1. Melissa hortensis, the Garden Bawm called by Anguillara, Brunfelsius, Cesalpinus and Gerard, Melissa: by Tragus, Melissa domestica by Gesner in hort. Castellus, Lugdunensis and Tabernmontanus, Melissophyllum : by Fuchsius, Melyssophyllum vulgare: by Matthiolus Cordus, Lacuna, Lobel, Apiastrum : by Parkinson, Melissa vulgaris odore Citri: and by Gesner, Citrago. (Melissa officinalis - Henriette)
2. Melissa notha, Bastard Bawm, called by Fuchsius, Melyssopyllum; by Clusius, Lamium Pannonicum : these we treat of in this Chapter.
3. Melissa Turcica Turkey Bawm.
4. Melissa Moluccana odorate, of which we treat in the next Chapter.
5. Melissa Peregrina, called by Matthiolus and Lugdunensis, Melissa Moldavica.
6. Melissa Moluccana foetida of which we say nothing in this Work.
III. The Description. The common Garden Bawm has a Root of a Woody substance, and full of strings, which endure long, and fasten themselves strongly in the ground, the Leaves and Stalks only dying every Year: from this Root springs up divers square green Stalks, with round hard dark green Leaves ( and sometimes of a lighter green, according to the place it grows in) a little dented about the edges, set by couples at the Joynts, and almost of a Citron or Limon smell: the flowers are small and gapeing, growing at Tops of the Stalks, of a pale Carnation colour, and almost white.
IV. Fuchsius his Bastard Bawm has a hard woody, stringy Root like the former, from whence springs square Stalks half a yard high, with Leaves like unto common Bawm, but larger and darker coloured, and not of so pleasant a scent; the Flowers are white, and sometimes of a pale purple colour, but much larger than those of the former, almost like to the yellow Lamium, or Dead Nettles, or to those of the Mountain Calamint. Parkinson says the flowers are of a pale purplish colour on the lower parts, and whitish above, not being so pleasantly scented as the common Garden Bawm. (Melittis melissophyllum - Henriette)
V. The Places. The first grows with us only in Gardens, and is profitably planted there, as Pliny lib. 21. cap. 12. says, for the delight of Bees, for which cause it is called Apiastrum, and by some Apium folium, Bees leaf. The other is a Native of Hungaria, but is nourished up by curious Herborists in their Gardens. I have sometimes found it growing in England, on the Sunny side of Ditch and Bank sides, where the ground has been pretty dry.
VI. The Time. They flower in June, July and August, and wither or dye away towards Winter, springing forth a fresh from the old Roots.
VII. The Qualities. They are both hot and dry in the second degree : they are Cephalick, Neurotick, Cardiack, and something Hysterick: famously Cordial (chiefly the Garden) and Vulnerary, Alexipharmick, and Alterative.
VIII. The Specification. It is approved against fainting and swooning Fits, Poisons, Sickness at Heart, and Hypochondriack Melancholy.
IX. The Preparations. You may prepare from it,
1. A cold Distilled Water.
2. A Spirituous Water.
3. A Spirit.
4. A Spiritous Tincture.
5. An Oily Tincture.
6. A Saline Tincture.
7. An Essence.
8. A Syrup.
9. A fixed Salt.
10. A Balsam or Oil.
11. A Cataplasm.
12. An expressed Juice.
X. The cold Distilled Water. It is a Cordial Water, and only used as a Vehicle to convey Cordial Medicaments in.
XI. The Spiritous Water. If it is a little dulcified with Syrup of Bawm, it is an excellent Cordial, and good against Fainting and Swooning Fits, Convulsions, and the like, and this chiefly in Children : It eases gripings in the Bowels, and comforts Universal Nature. Dose from half an ounce to two ounces, according to the Age of the Patient.
XII. The Spirit. This is much more excellent than the former water, and has a mighty power to repress Hypochondriack Melancholy: it revives the Spirits, and makes the Heart merry and chearful easing the Passions thereof after a wonderful manner. Dose from j. dram to ij. drams in any proper Vehicle.
XIII. The Spiritous Tincture. It has the former Virtues, and more powerful to all the said intentions, but not so pleasant: It is indeed a declared thing against all Passions of the Heart, the Colick, and Griping Pains of the Bowels. Dose j. or ij. drams, sweetned with the Syrup of the same.
XIV. The Oily Tincture. Outwardly bathed upon any place pained from a cold and moist cause., it gives ease and relief : and taken inwardly from xij. ro xxx. drops in some fit Vehicle, it gives ease in pains of the Spleen, Sides and Stomach, especially if they proceed from a cold cause : it also eases pains in the Back and Reins proceeding from weakness and obstructions : and being taken in a right time, it has been found to provoke the Courses in such as have them preternaturally stopt.
XV. The Saline Tincture. Being given from one dram to two, or more, in some proper Liquor, it is good against Poison, and the bitings of Mad-Dogs, eases the pains of the Stomach, and the gripings of the Bowels, proceeding from sharp humors it opens the obstructions of the Lungs, and causes such to breath freely, who before could scarcely take their breath: It may be made pleasant with the Syrup, of which we shall speak anon.
XVI. The Essence. It causes speedy and easie delivery to Women in Travel and in a mere especial manner is recommended against Hypochondriack Melancholy, being assiduously taken for some time. It has all the Virtues of the Spirit and Tincture, but must be given in a larger Dose, by reason of the gross Particles which are mixt with it: mixed and made pleasant with Rose-water and Sugar, or its own Syrup, it may be profitably given to Women in Child-bed, to bring away the After-birth, or cause a perfect cleansing. Galen lib. de Simple. says, that Bawm is like unto Horehound in Qualities, but much weaker. I will not gainsay Galen totally; but that it may be so in some Cases as in Hysterick Diseases : but where a Cordial is intended, I am sure Bawm is much the superiour, and is much better for Women in their Lying in, when-they are fainting, from their sore Travel or hard labour. Dose from half an ounce to two ounces. It is good against Poison, and the bitings of Venemous Beasts, and such as have been long troubled with the Bloody Flux.
XVII. The Syrup. It is Cordial, but is chiefly used as a Vehicle to other Cordial Medicines, and to make them palatable : however it is of it self a singular pectoral, and good against Coughs, Colds, Asthma's, Spitting of Blood, Obstructions of the Lungs and other like Diseases of the Breast, and parts adjacent.
XVIII. The fixed Salt. It strengthens the Stomach and Spleen, resists Vomiting, and carries oft much of the Morbifick Cause by Urine. To stop Vomiting you may give it thus : Take of this Salt a scruple ; Spirit of Sulphur viij. or x. drops : mix them till the effervescence is over : then dissolve it in a Glass of Canary, or some other Stomatick Vehicle; and so give it the Patient to drink.
XIX. The Balsam or Oil. They are most singular Vulneraries, and many times cure Wounds at one Dressing: and it is my opinion ( grounded upon the experience I have had of the Plant, in Chirurgery ) that it is not inferiour for curing Wounds and Ulcers, to any of the Allheals: and from its vulnerary and healing Properties it was, that our Ancestors called it Balm, as being of the nature of Balsam. Outwardly applied it is good against the stinging or striking of Scorpions, and the Poysonous Bite of the Phalangium
Page 0112 X. The Cataplasm. Being applyed it eases Pains coming from a cold Cause, and Discusses Flatulent Tumors: and being mixt with a little Niter, or the Amalgamation of Mercury with Lead, it prevails against Wens, Kernels and hard Swellings in the Neck and Throat or other parts, and is good also to give ease in the Gout, and ripen Biles and break them.
XXI. The Expressed Juice. It strengthens the Vital Spirits; and being given to iij. iv. or vj. Spoonfuls in a Glass of White Port Wine, it causes speedy Delivery to Women in Travel, and brings forth both Birth and After-birth. It is an Antiscorbutick, and helps bloody Flux, by reason of its Balsamick and healing Virtues. Put into the Eyes, it is a singular remedy for dimness of Sight, and being mixed with Honey it takes off Films which obfuscate and hinder the Sight.
XXII. The Bastard Bawm. You may make the same Preparations of this, as of the former, and they have in General the same Virtues, but as to the Vital Indications, they are not so powerful. However in all Hysterick Diseases they very much exceed, as being more effectual in opening Obstructions of the Womb, and resisting Fits of the Mother.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter was proofread by Therese Richardson.