Chap. 097. Of Bugloss Marsh.
I. The Names. It is called in Greek, *******, by Dioscorides; so called, because it grows ********, in pratis riguis vel palustribus: In Latin, Limonium: and in English, Marsh or Sea Bugloss, and Sea Lavender.
III. There has been some controversie among Authors about this Plant Limonium, some will have what we here describe to be the true Limonium, which it is: others will have some other Plants to be it: Matthiolus describes two kinds, but made no sensible distinction between them, nor yet told us which was the True, but as ignorant of the matter, speaks not a word of them: but to cease the contest, the true Limonium is that which has fair Leaves, like those of the Limon or Orange tree, of a dark green color, somewhat fatter, and a little crumpled.
IV. Gerard calls this Plant in English, Sea Lavender, (and from him Mr. Ray) but without any other ground, than that the color of the Flowers is somewhat near those of Lavender, for which reason Parkinson altered the Title, to a more proper name, and call'd it Sea or Marsh Bugloss, as being in form and color most like to Bugloss.
V. The Description. The first or Greater Marsh Bugloss has a Root somewhat thick and long, like unto a small Red Beet Root, whence comes several fair, long, thick, or fat green Leaves, somewhat like unto Small Beet Leaves, (and that is the reason that Pliny refers the Limonium unto the Beets, and calls it a Wild Beet, though Galen will have it, that there is no Wild sort of Beet:) or Leaves of the Limon Tree, from among which spring up several brittle, naked Stalks, without Leaves, near half a yard high, branched at the tops into several parts, whereon stand many small blewish purple Flowers, all on one side for the most part, something like unto Bugloss Flowers, but smaller after which come small reddish Seed, inclosed in the husks, which the Flowers stood in before.
VI. The Colchester Marsh Bugloss, is like unto the former almost in all respects, the Root being Reddish, but much lesser, the Leaves also lesser, and the Stalks lower, being but a little more than a foot high; the Flowers also of the same color with the former, but yet lesser: so that the difference between them seems to he only in the magnitude.
VII. The Virginian Marsh Bugloss has a long Root, an Inch thick in Diameter, or more, and going almost strait down into the ground, sending forth from it several Branches, and small Fibres: It is a very strange Plant, for from this Root springs forth very strange Leaves, such as are not to be seen in any other Plant that we know of, being nine, or ten, or more, rising from the head of the Root aforenamed, each by it self, being small below, and growing greater upwards, with a Belly bunching forth, and a bowing back, of a pale whitish yellow color, hollow at the upper end, with a Flap, not much unlike the to Flowers of Aristolochia or Birthwort, and round at the Mouth like a half Circle, full of great dark purplish Veins on the inside. The whole Leaf is of a thick substance, almost like unto heather, and among these Leaves springs up a Stalk, at the top of which comes forth a Flower with four or five Leaves, in a roundish Seed Vessel, with a Tuberous Thrum in the middle. (I have no idea what this plant could be. -Henriette)
VIII. The Places. The two first grow in Marsh grounds near the Sea in many parts of England. The first grows plentifully upon the Walls of the Fort against Gravesend, as also on the Banks of the River below the same Town, and below the Kings Stone-house at Chatham also by the King's Ferry going into the Isle of Shepey; and in the Salt Marshes by Lee in Essex in the Marsh by Harwich, and many other places. The second grows in the fields near the Sea, by Colchester, as Lobel says; and Clusius saith, may be found about Valentia in Spain. The third has been found growing in Virginia and my self found it in South Carolina, in a Marshy piece of Land at Canoi up Wando River, about nine Miles from Charles Town; it was also sent to Clusius from Paris, by one that received it in the same manner from Lisbon in Portugal.
IX. The Times. The two first flower in June and July, and their Seed ripens not long after: The last I saw in Flower in Carolina, in the Month of July, but stayed not in the place, to see its Seed.
X. The Qualities. They are temperate as to heat or cold, drying in the third Degree, Astringent, Styptick, Stomatick and Alterative.
XI. The Specification. They are peculiar against Catarrhs and Spitting of Blood.
1. A liquid Juice.
2. An Essence.
3. A Pouder of the Seed.
4. A Decoction of the Roots.
5. An Oil or Balsam of the Leaves.
XIV. The Essence. It has all the Virtues of the Juice, but more Stomatick, and therefore better for such as have weak Stomachs. Dose two or three spoonfuls in Red Wine, as aforesaid, and at the same times.
XV. The Pouder of the Seed. Gerard says, that being drunk in Wine, it helps the Collick, Strangury, and Dysentery, or Bloody Flux: Dose one dram. It also stops the overflowing of the Courses in Women, and all other Fluxes of Blood.
XVI. The Decoction of the Roots. Being made in Red Wine, it is very Astringent and Styptick, good against Catarrhs, and Fluxes of Blood, and has all the Virtues of the Juice and Essence, but not altogether so powerful: It has been found to be a specifick against Agues, whether Quotidian, Tertian, or Quartan.
XVII. The Oil. It is made by boiling the Leaves in Oil Olive till they are Crisp, &c. Applied to Contusions, weakned Joints, weak Backs, and Burnings, it cures them.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Nick Jones.