Chap. 096. Of Bugloss, Wall and Stone.
I. The Names. The first of these is called in Greek, *******: In Latin, by Bauhin, Lycopsis, by Dodonaeus, Lycopsis Echij altera Species: and in English, Wall Bugloss.
II. The other is called in Greek, ******* by Galen**********, Osmas Phlonitis: In Latin, Onosma: and in English, Stone Buglos.
III. The Kinds. Of the Wall Bugloss there are two Kinds,
- 1. Lycopsis Echij folio, That with a Vipers Bugloss leaf (Echium vulgare? -Henriette.)
- 2. Lycopsis Anglica, the English Wall Bugloss. (Anchusa arvensis. -Henriette.)
- The Stone Bugloss, is a singular Plant of its Kind. (Onosma echioides? -Henriette.)
IV. The Description. The first kind of Wall Bugloss has a Root which is somewhat woody, long, and not much thicker than a Finger, with some Fibres thereat; it is of a brownish red on the outside, but little or nothing colors the Fingers as the Anchusa's do: yet Dioscorides says, it was called by several Anchusa, and Galen says that in his time it was accounted a kind thereof; but it is much like to Echium, and other sorts of Wild Bugloss. From this Root arises Leaves which spread upon the Ground which are many, long, narrow, rough or rugged hairy, and of a dark green color, somewhat like to Echium, or some other Wild Bugloss: These Leaves abide in this manner, some years, without sending forth of any Stalk, or Flowers at all (which some having taken notice of, thought that it never did bear Flower or Seed:) But truly though it bears no Stalk for Flowers or Seed some years, yet it has been found to bear them in some others, for that divers Plants hereof have been found as well with Stalk and Flowers, as Void, or without: When it bears a Stalk, it rises up about two Feet high, bearing such like Leaves as grow below, but set one distant from another, without order, and smaller up to the Top, where the Flowers stand upon their several Branches, which are spread about, as also come forth with the Leaves at the Joints, like unto the hollow Flowers of Echium, or Wild Bugloss, with uneven and gaping dented brims or edges, of a pale Purple color, with a long Stile or Pointel in the middle, growing out of the Flower above the length thereof; after which follows the Seed, much like to Bugloss Seed, but not altogether so great or black.
V. The English Wall Bugloss has a Root a little reddish like the other, but giving as little color: but as to its Leaves, Stalks, and Flowers, it differs very little from the former: the only difference is, that the Flowers do all grow at the Tops of the Branches, and are of a deeper purple color, with divers threads shooting out of them.
VI. Stone Bugloss is said by Dioscorides to have a reddish Root, but to be without either Stalk, Flower, or Seed, which thing he says also of Lycopsis, and Cynoglossum, both which are known (in divers of their Plants) to have all the three, and therefore it may be as probable in this. This Plant in its form has a great resemblance or likeness to the former Lycopsis, as also to Anchusa or Alkanet but differing from them in its Virtues. It has many long and narrow smooth Leaves lying upon the ground, not above an Inch broad, but about four inches long, like to those of the lesser Alkanet.
VII. The Places. The first two grow upon Stone Walls, and upon dry, stony, and barren Grounds: the first has been found about Frontignan near Montpelier in France, as Pena and Lobel say: The second Lobel observed to grow in the West Countrey, in the way from Bristol and Bath to London. The Stone Bugloss grows in Rocky and Stoney Places.
VIII. The Times. The Wall Buglosss flower in July, and sometimes in August; and the Seed is ripe in the following Month. The Stone Bugloss is green all the Year; but its times of flowering and seeding (if it does so) has not been as yet observed.
IX. The Qualities. Wall Bugloss is temperate, or rather cold and dry in the first Degree, astringent, Styptick, Traumatick or Vulnerary, Pectoral, Hepatick and Alterative. Stone Bugloss is hot and dry in the second Degree, Aperitive, Cleansing, Hysterick, and Alterative.
X. The Specification. The Wall Buglosses are peculiar Vulneraries for healing Green Wounds. And Stone Bugloss is a Specifick for the speedy Delivery of Women in Labor.
XI. The Preparations. The Wall Buglosses have all the Prepartions and Virtues of the Wild Buglosses, to which we refer you: But
- 1. The Juice.
- 2. The Essence.
- 3. The Oil, have some peculiar Virtues.
Of the Stone Bugloss you may make also,
- 1. A liquid Juice.
- 2. An Essence.
- 3. A Pouder of the Leaves.
- 4. A Decoction.
XII. The liquid Juice of Wall Bugloss. Taken alone, or mixed with Honey, it stops Catarrhs, falling upon the Fauces and Lungs, and resists Fluxes of the Bowels: and being applied upon Inflammations, as a Phlegmon, Erysipelas, &c. it cools them: inwardly taken, it is a good Traumatick.
XIII. The Essence of Wall Bugloss. It is astringent and Stiptick, stops Catarrhs, and all Fluxes of the Bowels; as also all Fluxes of sharp Humors, to old running Sores and Ulcers, and so renders them easie of cure. Dose one ounce at a time, Morning and Evening, in any specifick Vehicle, as a mixture of Plantane and Poppy Water, an Infusion of Catechu in fair Water, &c.
XIV. The Oil of Wall Bugloss. It is made by boiling the Leaves and Roots in Oil Olive to Crispness, &c. It admirably heals Green Wounds, abates Inflammations, and cures Burnings, being anointed upon the Part, and also mixed with Barley Flower, and applied: Parkinson says, that this Oil cures S. Anthonies fire, but usually Oily and Greasie Bodies do mischief in that case: to bathe with the liquid Juice is much better, and to apply over the Erysipelas, Cloths often wet with the same: or a soft Cataplasm of the Juice mixt with Barley Flower.
Virtues of Stone Bugloss.
XV. The liquid Juice. It provokes the Terms in Women powerfully, and therefore ought not to be given to Women with Child, left it causes them to miscarry: a spoonful or two of it may be given Morning and Evening in a Glass of White Wine.
XVII. The Pouder of the Leaves. It is good against Vapors and Fits of the Mother, and taken ad j. dram in Wine by Women in Travel, it facilitates and hastens the Delivery, for which it is said to be an excellent thing: it has the Virtues of the Juice and Essence, and therefore ought not to be given to Women with Child.
XVIII. The Decoction in Wine. It has the Virtues of the Essence and Pouder, but not altogether so powerful.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Nick Jones.