Chap. 110. Campions, Garden.
I. The Names. They are called in Greek, by Dioscorides and Theophrastus, ***** (from ******, Lucerna,) and *******, quasi lucernae funiculum, for that in former times they used the Leaves of Campions in their Lamps, to burn instead of Weiks: they also called it ******, id est, immortalis, quod diutius Venustatem suam retinet: In Latin, Lychnis, Lychnis Coronaria, Lychnis Sativa & Rosa Graeca: In English, Campions, and Rose Campions.
II. The Kinds. They are twofold,
1. ******, Lychnis Coronaria, Lychnis Sativa vel Hortensis, Garden Campions, of which in this Chapter. (Silene coronaria. -Henriette.)
2. Lychnis Sylvestris, Wild Campions, of which in the next Chapter.
The Garden Kind, are,
The Single are, Lychnis coronaria rubra simplex, The single red Rose Campion.
2. Lychnis coronaria alba simplex, The single white Rose Campion.
3. Lychnis coronaria albescens, sive incarnato maculata, & non maculata simplex, The blush Rose Campion, spotted and not spotted.
The Double, 4. Lychnis coronaria rubra Multiplex, The Double red Rose Campion.
III. The Descriptions. The Single red Rose Campion, has a Root small, long, and woody, with many fibres annexed unto it, and oft times shoots forth anew, and sometimes also dies and perishes. On the Top of this Root, there are divers thick, hoary, or wooly, long, green Leaves, abiding green all the Winter; from among which in the end of the Spring, or beginning of Summer, there shoots forth two or three hard, round, woolly Stalks, with some Joints thereon, and at every Joint two such like hoary green Leaves, as those below, but smaller, diversly branched at the Top, hoving one Flower upon each several long Footstalk, consisting of five Leaves, somewhat broad and round pointed, of a perfect Red, Crimson color, standing out of a hard, long, round husk, ridged and crested in four or five places: After the Flowers are fallen, there come up round hard heads, in which is contained small blackish Seed.
IV. The second Single white Campion, is in all things as Roots, leaves, Stalks, and Flowers, like to the former, saving only the color of the Flowers, that being of a Red Crimson color, this of a pure White.
V. The third sort of Single Campions are like unto the former also, these other sorts having no other difference to distinguish them by, but the colors of the Flowers, which are of a pale or bleak whitish blush color, chiefly about the brims or edges of the Leaves, or as if a very little Red was mixed with a great deal of White, the middle of the Flower being more White; the one being spotted all over the Flower, with small spots and streaks, the other not having any spot at all.
VI. The fourth, or Double red Rose Campion, is in all respects like unto the Single red Rose Campion, excepting that this bears Double flowers, consisting of two or three Rows or Courses of Leaves at most, not so large as the Single. The whole Plant is more tender, and therefore more apt to die or perish than the Single is.
VII. The Places. They are only nurs'd up with us in Gardens: both Single and Double are only by Nature not Art: and the Double ones have been found so Wild: for I could never observe that any Art or Industry of Man could ever so alter the properties of Nature, tho' by never so many repetitions of Transplantations, and Observation of the Phases of the Moon; as to make any Flower Single by Nature, to become Double, tho’ many Men have affirmed the same; and of this Opinion was Parkinson who says, that whatsoever has been found Wild to be Double Nature it self, and not Art, so produced it, and so was brought into Gardens, where they are much encreased by flipping, and parting the Root, because they give no Seed
VIII. The Times They do all of them flower in the Summer Months, through May, June and July to the end of August.
IX. The Qualities. The Seed, which is chiefly used, is hot and dry in the second Degree. It is Vulnerary, Alterative, and Alexipharmick.
X. The Specification. It is peculiar against the Poison of Scorpions.
1. The Green Leaf.
2. The Pouder of the Seed.
3. The Spirituous Tincture.
4. The Acid Tincture.
XII. The Green Leaves. Being applied whole, or beaten in a Mortar into a Cataplasm, with a little Hogs Lard and Turpentine, and applied to any old or foul Ulcers in the Legs, Arms, or other parts, it does cleanse and heal them.
XIII. The Pouder of the Seed. Galen affirms it to be hot and dry in the second or third Degree. And Dioscorides says, that being drunk in Wine, it helps those who are thing by a Scorpion; and so it is also thought to be good against the malignity of the Plague or Pestilence. Dose one dram at a time, Morning and Evening.
XIV. The Spirituous Tincture. It has the former Virtues, but more powerful against the plague or Pestilence, the Spotted Fever, bitings of Serpents, Mad Dogs, or other Venomous Creatures. Dose half a spoonful, or a spoonful, in a Glass of Wine, Morning and Evening.
XV. The Acid Tincture. It has the Virtues of the former, is more Stomatick, and more powerfully resists the Malignity or Poison of the Plague, it destroying that, and the Fever together. Dose sixty or eighty drops, or more, in generous Canary.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Nick Jones.