Chap. 111. Of Campions Wild.
I. The Names. They are called in Greek *******: In Latin, Lychnis Sylvestris: and in English, Wild Campions.
II. The Kinds. They are manifold, as,
The Single are,
1. Lychnis Sylvestris flore albo simplex, Wild Campions with a white Flower. (Lychnis dioica. -Henriette.)
2. Lychnis Sylvestris flore rubro simplex, Wild Campions with a red Flower.
3. Lychnis Sylvestris flore rubro minor simplex, The lesser red Campion with a red Flower.
4. Lychnis Sylvestris vel Segetum Vaccaria rubra dicta, Corn Campion.
5. Lychnis Marina alba rubra, The Sea Campion white and red.
6. Lychnis arvensis minor Anglica, The English small Wild Campion with a white Flower.
7. Lychnis plumaria Sylvestris simplex, Armoraria pratensis, The feathered Wild Campion simple.
III. The Double Wild Campions, are,
1. Lychnis plumaria Sylvestris multiplex, Armoraria pratensis flore pleno, The feathered Wild Campion Double.
2. Lychnis agrestis multiflora, of Lobel; Ocymoides flore pleno, of Camerarius; Lychnis Sylvestris purpurea multiplex, of Gerard: Flore pleno rubro, of Parkinson, Red Batchelors Buttons.
3. Lychnis Sylvestris multiflora, by Pena and Lobel; Ocymastrum, of Tabermontanus; Lychnis Sylvestris alba multiplex, by Gerard; Flore albo pleno, by Parkinson; White Batchelors Buttons.
4. Lychnis agrestis abortivam multiplici store viridi, Batchelors Buttons with green Flowers.
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IV. The Descriptions. The firjl of the Single Wild Campions has a Root white and long, fpreading forth divers Branches in the ground, and perish-ing after Seed time : from whence come forth many long and somewhat broad, dark, green Leaves, lying upon the ground, with several Ribs therein, not m^cl? unlike to Rib-wort Plantane, but somewhat hairy, broader, but not so long. The Stalks are hairy, and rise up in the midst of them, three or four feet high, and sometimes more, with several large white Joints at several places thereon, and two Jitch like Leaves thereat up to the Top. From these hairy Stalks come forth divers Branches also at their various Joints, all which bear on various Footstalks white Flowers at their several Tops, consisting of five broad pointed leaves, every one cut in on the end unto the middle, making them to look like two apiece : they smell something sweet, and each of them β and in a large, green, striped, hairy Husk or Case, large and round below next to the tootstalk. The Seed is small and greyish in the hard heads,which come up afterwards.
V. The second Single Wild Campion, has a Root like the former, which perishes also after Seed-time. This Red Campion grows after the same manner a* the former·, but its Leaves are not so perfectly ribbed, are something jhorter, rounder, and more Jojt or wooly in handling. The Flowers are of the same form and bigness, in some of a pale, in others of a bright reddish color, cut in at the ends more finely, which ?nakes the cut or jagged Leaves seem to be more in number than the other. The Seed is like the former, small and greyifh.
VI. The third Single Red Wild Campion, which is the lesser, has a Root like the former, which perishes after Seed-time, as they do: This whole Plant is very like the foregoing ; but smaller and lower : yet very much branched, and rcplenified with dark-ef green Leaves. The Flowers are Reddish: but Waller, and not so much cut or dented in at the ends. The Husks and Seeds are also like the former, but every ways lesser.
VII. The fourth, or Corn Campion of the Gardens, has a Poet, long, white, and woody, with several Branches 'ringing from it, ( and is but an An* nual Plant) from which rises up for the most part but one round Stalk, fpreading it self out every way into several Branches, having two long I eaves Jet oppofite at the Joints, being bro.id at the bottom, and encompajfing the Stalk and Branches, not much unlike to Through-wax, ending in a small point, of a pale green color. At the Tops of the several Branches, fi and divers Flowers, consisting of four Leaves a
piecr, of a pale red color; which being past away, conic forth Skinny Husks, containing small, round, hard, black Seed. This Plant Jor the beauty oj its Flowers, is brought into, andNursed up in our Gardens.
VIII. Thefijih, or Sea Campion White. It has a long slender Root, which abides many Years, from whence springs up several weak, flexible Branches, lying all about upon the ground, ( which Branches are much divided into many other smaller ones ) two or three beet long thick set with small, long, fat, and wvitifh green 1 eaves. At the top oj every Branch stands one 'jhort, thick, whitijh green Husk, parted or cut in at top; out of which J] tings jorth a small long neck'd white blower, not much unlike to that of the fpat ling Poppy, and as wl iie, composed of five small, roan I pointed Leaves, with some blackish threads in the middle : which being puffed away, there ernes forth Musks like those of the other Wild Campions, containing within them small brown Seed.
IX. The Red flower'd Sea Campion differs not from the former, neither in its Root, Stalks, Branches^ Leaves, flowers, Husks, nor Seed, nor yet in the manner of growing, excepting only in the color of the blower, this being of a fine pieafant Red, whereas the former is White : so that some have thought it to be one and the same Species, Nature only fporting it self in the variety or color of the blower: this Plant Herborists call in Latin, Lychnis Marina flore rubello, Redfin:vcr'd Sea Campion.
X. The fixth, or English small white Field Campion, has a Root which is small and white, and pe-rifhes every Year frVm whence spring forth Leaves, which are small and hairy, not much unlike to the small Moufe Ear : and from among which springs forth a slender small Stalk, sometimes but one, which is single of it JctJ ; and sometimes many, not exceeding a boot high. At every Joint two Leaves are set together, smaller than those below, andspotted with white spots from the bofom whereof, viz. between them and the Stalk, come forth two other Leaves, much smaller than they, without any fenfible Taste.
. The flowers are small and white, like unto the other «Wild Campions. After which come small, long " Heads, with small greyish Seed in them. \ XI. The jeventh,or Single Feathered Wild Cam-, . . pion hat a Root very fibrous, or full of small ft rings, Λ from whenee springsforth a Stalk ; as also Leaves, somewhat like the Ordinary White Wild Campion^ but not so large, or rather resembling the Leaves of Sweet Williams, but that they grow not so close, nor so many tngether. The Stalks have smaller Leaves at the Joints, than those below, and branched at the Top on which several Tops grow many pale, but bright red flowers, jagged or cut in on the edges, like the Leathered Rink, for which thing fake, some have taken it to be a kind, and some for a kind of Wild William $ but notwithfiand all this, it is but a Wild Campion, as may easily be observed from several other parts of the Plant, it has a Husk which bears the blower, like the Campions, and also round greyish Seed.
Double Wild Campions.
XII. The first oj-these (in cur jjLtuM ) is the Double Feathered Wild Campion, which in its Roots, Stalks, Branches, Leaves, flowers, Husks, and Seed, is like unto the Single Feathered Wild Campion · excepting only in two things, 1. That the blower] are very Double. 2. That the whole Plant in its magnitude and manner of growing is smaller and lower.
XIII. The second, or Red Batchelors Buttons has a thick large Root, white and long, with many Branches and Fibres springing from it h from whence come up many rough broad Leaves, somewhat woolly find hoary among which rise up long soft and hairy Stalks, branched into many Arms, two or three Feet high, or more, set with the like Leaves, but less : The Leaves groio at the Joints, two oppofite one to another, up to the top ; and from these Joints other Branches spring sorth, at top of every one of which flowers grow compared of a multitude of Leaves, and of a red color. Tfiefe Flowers are very double, composed of a great many red Leaves, very thickly packt or crouded together, and commonly set in a short or broken Husk, whereby the Flowers seem to ft and on one side ; but are not jagged, or cut in on the tops, as the Flowers of other Campions are, but altogether smooth. It is like in all its parts to the first Single Wild Campion as to its manner of growing, excepting that it is every ways less, and its Flowers are Red, and very Double.
XIV. The third, or White Batchelors Buttons : As the Leaves of the former Red Buttons were like unto the Leaves of the second Single Kind, with Red Flowers ; so the Leaves of this are like unto the Leaves of the first Single White Knid, and the whole Plant differs nothing from it, but in the Doubleness of the flowers ; nor very little from the Red Batchelors Buttons, but in the color of the same, these being wholly White; and so very Double, that by the multiplicity of Leaves being crouded together, they break the Husk in which the Flowers jland, as the other does, so that t)yere is not one Fiercer in a great many which is whole. Gerard says, That the fimilitude which these flowers ( both of Red and White ) have to the jagged Cloth Buttons, formerly worn in this Kingdom, gave occafwn to our Ladies, and other blonfts of those times, to give them the names which now they bear.
XV. The fourth, or Green Batchelors Buttons, have no difference from the two former in the Roots, Stalks, Branches, Leaves nor Seed, faving only in the Flowers, which in this are of a Greeniff color and sometimes through the midst of them they fend up Stalks, bearing also Tufts of the like Double Flowers.
XVI. The Places. Of these, the three first Single sorts grow for the most part in our Countrey Fields, by Hedge and Ditch sides in many parts of England. The fourth grows in many Corn Fields in Germany, but with us is nouriiht up in Gardens. The fifth, or White and Red Sea Campions grow by Hurft Caftle near the Ille of Wight, and in the said Iile in many places by the Sea side : They grow also by the Sea side in Lancashire at a place called Ly-tham, five Miles from Wigan, in which place grows rhat with Red Flowers also. Johnfon found it also growing in great plenty in the Marsh Grounds in Thanet, which lye direcFly oppofite to the Town of Sandwich : The Red has been found about a Mile from Southampton, and both of them chiefly in the Southern parts of England, on the moist Stony Banks by the Sea side. The fixth grows in several grounds by Colchefter, and in a Field called the Mi 11-field,behind the House of Sir Thomas Luc/% near Colchefter. The fevenrh is only nourilhed up in Gardens.
XVII. Of the Double Wild Campions, the first grows here only in Gardens. The second and third grow Wild in several places, but with us are chiefly Nursed up in Gardens, for the beauty of their Flowers fake. The fourth also grows in Gardens.
XVIII. The Times. They all Flower in the Summer Months of June, July and Auguj}, fome earlier than others, some later, and their Seed is ripe soon after.
XIX. The Qualities. They are all of them hot and dry in the second Degree : astringent and Alterative; and much of the nature of the Garden Kinds.
XX. The Specification. They have been found good to stop the Fluxions of Blood and Humors.
XXI. The Preparations. The same Preparations may be made of them which we have said to be made of the Garden Kinds in the former Chapter.
XXII. Authors have said little of their Virtues, nor have we much to say of them by Experience the general use is for the beauty of the Garden, the Flowers being very beautiful in their Seasons. Parkinson says, that being Drying and astringent, the several Preparations ot them may be profitably applied to ttay the Fluxes of Blood and Humors in any parr, and thereby also conduce to the healing ot old and moist Running Sores and Ulcers.
XXIII. Gerard says, the Seed of Wild Campions being given to two drams (in pouder) and so drunk, that it purges Choler by Stool, and is good for them that are Bitten or Stung by any Venomous Creature.
phrafii, Armenus fius partus Vodcnci, Be/? rubrum Monfpehcnfium : In E/ig/ff, Citch-ftie, and Lime-wort: also by Gerard, Wild Williams.
II. The Kinds. Parkinson will have this Plant to be of the Kinds of Wild Lychnis, or Wijd Campion ; but Gerard says, they are of the Stock of Wild Pinks and Gillifiowers, and lb calls them also with the other names Wild Williams. Those which we shall handle in this Work are such as are ufual in England, viz. I. Mufcipula Lobclij, Lychnis Syl* vefiris prima Clufiij, five Ben-rubrum Monfpelienfium, The French Catch-fiie. 2. Lychnis Syiveftris latifolia Clufij, Mufcipula Cretica Auricula Urfi-facie, Catch-fiie of Candid. 2. Mufcipula five Vif-caria Lobclij, Vifcago Camerarij, Lychnis Sylvestris tenia Clufij, Gerard's first Catch-fiie, or Lime-wort. 4. Mufcipula anguft folia, Lychnis Sylvestris quart a Clufij, Narrow-leaVd, or German Catch-fiie.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
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