Chap. 130. Of Cinkfoil.
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I. The Names. It is called in Greek, T\m*ivx-ί λον ; In Latin, Pentaphyllum, and Quinque-folium, a numero folwrum : In English, Cinkfoil, and five-leafd Grass.
II. The Kinds. Authors make at least sixteen Kinds, or more many of which grow not in England, nor any place belonging to our Territories : The most usual with us are, i. Pentaphyllum Vul-gatijfimum, Our most Common Cinkfoil. 2. Pentaphyllum majus album Vulgare, The Greater Common white Cinkfoil. 3. Pent aphylion magnum fiore luteo vel albo. The Great Common Cinkfoil with a white or yellow Flower. 4. Pentaphyllum rubrum Palustre, Red Marsh Cinkfoil. «j. Pentaphyllum jfu-pinum Potent ilia facie, Low Silver-weed Cinkfoil. 6. Pentaphyllum mean urnrepens majus LJf' minus, The Greater and Less creeping hoary Cinkfoil. 7. Pentaphyllum retlum majus if minus, The Greater and Lesser upright Cinkfoil. The first of these is called generally by all, Pentaphyllum, or __>iiwquefolium vulgare, and SLuinqucfolium majus repens Bauhini, Common Cinkfoil. The second, Quinquefolium album, and Quinquefolium album majus alter urn Bauhini. The third is called, Quinquefolium album majus caulescens Bauhini.
ILL The Descriptions. The first has a Root of a blackish brown color, very rarely so large as ones little Finger, but growing long, with several Fibres Jpnnging from it _· and by which small firings it 'Pf'ckly Jpeads over the place it grows on : From ms Root rises up several weak Stalks, lying on.
spreading and creeping on the Earth, with Ion ζ /lender Branches, or Strings, like to the Strawberry Plant, which take Root again, and shoot forth many Leaves. These Leaves are five in number, (sometimes seven, though but rarely ) long, finely dented about the edges, and ending in a pretty sharp point, somewhat hard, and of a lightish green color. The Stalks are slender, leaning downwards, and bear many small yellow Flowers, with some yellow threads in the middle, standing about a smooth green Head, which when it is ripe is a little rough, and contain) small brownish Seed.
IV. The second has a Root thick and long, blackish on the out side\ but reddish within, having many fibres appertaining to it. From whence spring forth Stalks with many Leaves, also Leaves growing from the Root. The Stalks are small, weak, and a little-hoary, and the Leaves springing from them are fivefold, or divided into five parts, a little dented and pointed at the ends, green on the upper side, and a kind of hoary white underneath : bet zee en these Leaves grow weak Branches, leaning down to the ground near a foot long, with many such like Leaves on them, but lefj'Cr than those below._· The Flowers are about the largeness of the former, 'but not full out so large as the next following, of a white color, consisting of five rounder pointed Leaves than the others are, having a nick in the middle, and several small yellow threads in the middle of the Flower, set with a woolly Head, having many small Seeds set together like unto a Crowfoot head of Seed. Of this kind there is another whose green Leaves are not dented about the edges, little differing in any thing else.
V. The third has a Root somewhat thick and long, of a blackish brown color without, and reddish within : From this Root spring forth many Leaves, also Stalks or Branches, the Leaves stand upon their own Stalks, and arc divided into five parts, as if they were five several Leaves, dented about the edges, and almost sharp pointed, very like to the first or Common Cinkfoil, but that these are every ways larger, and a little hairy from which rise up strait or upright Stalks for a while, till they are grown up to a considerable length, then they incline, or lean somewhat down towards the ground, as both the former do. These Stalks are a little hairy also, and divided near their tops into two or three Branches, and they again into others smaller _·, upon the tops of every one of which grows one Flower, of a white color, and larger than in either of the former, consisting of five Leaves, as all the other forts do ; in the middle of which stands a small downy head, encompassed with many reddish yellow threads. This kind, Jays Gerard, is Jo common, and so universally known, that he thought it needless to give any Description thereof. Johnson upon Gerard says, it has many long fender Stalks lying spread upon the ground, out of which grow Leaves, made of five longish snipt Leaves, fastned to one long Footstalk the Flowers also grow upon the like Footstalks, and are composed of five yellow Leaves. The Root is pretty large, of a reddish color, and round, but dryed, it becomes square.
VI. The fourth, or Marsh kind, has a Root of a Woody fub β a nee, with some fibres, or thready firings adjoining thereto: From which Root rise up Leaves almost like to the former, consisting of five parts, notcht about the edges, and standing close together at their lower ends, upon one long Footstalk : the Stalks are about a foot and half high, and of a reddish color; The Flowers grow at the tops of the Stalks, like unto the other Cinkfoils, fave that they are of a dark red color ; in a word the whole Riant is very like to the other kinds, especially the great Kind last before this described.
VII. The fifth or Silver-weed Cinkfoil, has a Root small long and blackish, like the first Common Cinkfoil : from which springs forth long Stalks of Leaves divided into many parts next the ξround set on each side thereof, two at a space, one again/} another, and an odd one at the end, all of them dented about the edges, very like unto Wild Tansey Leaver but not booty or fitver like, as they are, but only green. The blowers come forth at the Joints with the Leaves, towards the tops of the Stalks, which Stalks creep not, nor ft and upright, but being weak lean dozen towards the ground, having very long
Stalks of Leaves on ti cm. The Flowers which grow on the tops of the Stalks, are lesser, and less divided than those which grow below : they are single, every one by its Jclf,J<.\'Jlt,of a pale yellow color, and WHO Δ head in the middle, which after it is ripe, is like unto the other Cinkfoil heads of Seed, viz. like to a small, hard, dry Strawberry.
VIII. The sixth, or Hoary Kind, ii all over hoary, whence it took the name §f Incanum : It has a long slender Root, and Woody, from whence rise up ft'
veral woody thick Stalks, somewhat red, wrinkled also, and of a brown color, which grow of unequal lengths from the Root, spreading themselves into many Branches, shadowing the place where it grows. The Leaves are thick fet, and snipt on the edges, almost like Tormentil, and are thought by some to be oj raual force with it against Poyson, and for which redjen, some have thought it to be the Leucas Dioscoridis. The Flowers ft and also upon long Footstalks, and consist of five yellow heaves apiece, having a yellow thrummy head in the middle like to the other Cinkfoils _·, This is twofold^ viz. the Greater and Lesser, which differ in nothing but in their magnitude.
IX. The seventh, or Upright Kind, has a thick black fibrous Root, from which spring forth heaves and Stalks : the heaves stand upon long Loot stalks ; the Stalks are strong and upright, not much above half a yard high, spreading forth several ways into divers Branches. The heaves are somewhat longer, larger, and greener than any of theformer*kinds, stand upon long Footstalks, and are divided into five parts, as the others, and dented about the edges sometimes into seven, but that more rarely, having three heaves only at the top. The Flowers grow at the tops of the Stalks, which are large, and of a pale yellow color, and in some Plants of a purplish color, which turn into Seed, much as the other kinds do : this is the Greater kind. But there is a lesser of this Upright Kind, which has smaller and rounder heaves, of a fad green color on the upper side, and grey or hoary underneath ; the Stalks are tenderer, and lower, the Flowers on the tops smaller, and of a more Gold yellow color, in which consists the chief difference.
X. The Places. The first grows almost every where throughout England, by Highway sides, Ditch sides, and other Unfilled places. The second is found in shady and woody places, under Hedges, and other moist places, and by Highway sides. The third is ro be found growing almost every where upon good Ground, by Highways, and in low and moist Meadows. The fourth grows in Moist and Marsh Grounds, and in Watry places ; it grows in a Marsh Ground adjoining to the Land called Bourn Ponds, half a Mile from Colchejhr, from which place, Gerard lays, he brought some Plants for his Garden, in which they Nourished and prospered well. The fifth, Gerard says, grew upon Brick and Stone Walls about London. The sixth, Gerard says, is a rare Planr, and that he found it growing on the Mountains of the Peak, and dry Gravelly Valleys. The seventh grows in many places of France and Germany, where it bears white Flowers _·, and in Italy, where the Flowers are purplish ; but with us it is only nourish'd up in Gardens.
XI. The Times. They are said to Flower all the Summer Months, as May, June and July >, even from the beginning of May ; and the Seed ripens m the mean Season.
XII. The Qualities. The Cinkfoils are Temperate in respect of heat or coldness, but dry in the third Degree. They are Abstersive, Neurotick, Arthritick, Alterative, Analeptick, and Alexipharmick. Although it is supposed by Authors, that they have all one and the lame Virtues, yet it is manifest, that some of them are stronger, and more efficacious than others. Those which are estemed the most powerful, are the first, second, third, and seventh, these are the chiefest for use, and strongest in effect, of all the rest, and are hell to be as effectual tor all the purposes where unto Tormentil is applied, so that instead thereof, and where that is wanting, Cinkfoil says Parkinson ) mav be used to as good purpose.
XIII. Tl)e Specification. It is an especial remedy against Agues and Fevers, and to stop all forts of Muxes, whether of Blood or Humors, in any part of the Body wheresoever.
XIV. The Preparations. You may prepare therefrom, 1. A liquid Juice. 1. An Essence. 1. An Infusion or Decoction. 4. A Pouder of the Root.
A Vinegar. 6. A Cataplasm. 7. Λ distilled Water. 8. A Spirituous Tincture. 9. An Acid Tincture. 10. An Oily Tincture. i\. Jt Balsam! or Ointment. 12. A Collyrium.
XV. The Juice. It is good against all forts of Agues and Fevers, whether Continent, Continual or Contermitting : whether they be burning Fevers only, Malign, or Pestilential. It cools and atrem* perates the Blood, and Humors, and is an excellent thing for a Lotion, Injection, Gargle, and the likes for fore Mouths, Ulcers, Cankers, Fistula's, and other corrupt, foul, and running Sores. The Juice is given to four ounces at a time, for some Days together, two or three Hours before the coming of the Fit of an Ague, whether Quotidian, Tertian, or Quartan, it is said to cure it, but it ought to be drank Morn^ ing and Evening in the intermediate Days alia And taken in the same quantity for the same time, viz. for thirty Days together, it cures the Falling Sickness, as also the Quinsey, and Yellow Jaundice, and all Fluxes in Man or Woman, as Whites, Reds, and Bloody Flux, Diarrhea, &c. The Juice mixt with a little Honey, prevails against Hoariness, as also the Cough of the Lungs.
XVI. The Essence. It has all the Virtues of the Juice, but more effectual to all the purposes aforesaid _·, besides which it is very effectual to cure Consumptions of all forts, and to heal Ulcers of the Lungs : And if the hands be often washed there* with, and it is suffered every time to dry in of it elf, without wiping, it will in a short time help the Palsie, or shaking of them.
XVII. The Infusion or Decoction in Red Port Wine. They have the Virtues of the liquid Juice and Essence, but not all out so effectual: yet however they are very powerful against all forts of Fluxes of the Bowels: But where there is a sharpness of Humors, the Decoction is belt made in Milk. The Decocti* on outwardly applied, and inwardly drank as a Diet drink, very much contributes to the Cure of the Gout and Sciatica as also to consolidate Ruptures of the Bowels.
XVIII. The Pouder of the Root. Taken to a dram* Morning and Night, it is good against Fluxes of the Belly, spitting and pissing of Blood, Ruptures, and Agues of all forts ; but it ought also to be given over and above on the day the Ague comes, three hours before the Fit, in a Glass of Red Port, or Red
XIX. The Vinegar. The Roots boiled in Vinegar, and that held in the Mouth, is said to ease the pains of the Teeth : it also is good against all forts of Nodes, Kernels, hard Swellings, and Excrescences growing in the Flesh, in any part, being applied thereunto. It allays all kinds of Inflammations, and alleviates Anthonies Fire and the Shingles it prevails against Apostems, and painful Sores or Ulcers, attended with pain and putrefaction, as also all other kinds of running Sores, Ulcers, Foul Scabs, Itch, 6Λ_ It gives ease in pains of the Joints, and the Gout, whether in the Hips, Hands or Feet. It >s also good against bruises, or hurts by blows, falls, or the like, and to stop the bleeding of Wounds in any part inward or outward.
XX. The Cataplasm. Made with Vinegar by boiling, and applied, it softens hard Tumors, is good against Contusions, stops the Flux of Humors to any part, and gives ease in the Gout.
XXI. The Distilled Water. It has some small matter of the Virtues of the Juice, Essence and Decoction _·, but is chiefly used as a Vehicle, to convey other Preparations in.
XXII. The Spirituous Tincture. It is a famous thing against all manner of Fluxes of Belly and Womb, but especially those of Blood _·, it stops spitting, vomiting and pissing of Blood, and wonderfully strengthens the Stomach, Bowels and Womb and if timely and prudently given, prevails against a Diabetes, because by irs Spirituous Nature, it so admirably strengthens all the Vessels and Passages. Dose two drams Morning and Night.
XXIII. The Acid Tincture. It has all the Virtues of the Vinegar at 5a/. 19. aforgoing, besides which it is an excellent Stomatick, stops Vomiting, strengthens the Stomach, cuts Flegm, causes a good Appetite and Digestion, opens Obstructions, and cleanses the Bowels : mixed in equal quantities with Tinctura Martis, and given Daily, Morning, Noon and Night, in some convenient Vehicle to one dram, moie or less, it perfectly cures the Green-sickness in Virgins, and the Yellow Jaundice in Elder People.
XXIV. The Oily Tincture. It prevails against Defamations of the Skin, Scurf, DandrifF, Morphew, and that kind of Disease called m*m, Deuce, or the Spotted Leprosie ; inwardly taken to half a dram, or one dram in White Wine, it admirably strengthens the Back, and eases the pains thereof _·, opens Obstructions of the Urinary Parts, and expels final! Stones, Gravel, Sand, and other Tartarous matter.
XXV. The Balsam or Ointment. It digests contused Wounds cleanses old, putrid, running Sores and Ulcers, drys them, and suddenly heals them. There are but few better Vulneraries than this Balsam and Ointment-, and being applied to the Gout, especially the Balsam, it eases the pain, and it effectually draws forth the Morbifick matter, that for the molt part the Patient remains perfectly cured. i
XXVI. The Collyrium. It is made of the Juice mixed with Honey _·, a quarter of a pound of Honey to a pint of the Juice. Put into the Eyes, it clears the fight, and stops fluxes of Rheum tailing down into them : there is nothing better for curing Ulcers in that part, the Eye being washed therewith three or four times a day. It is also an excellent Lotion to heal a lore and ulcerated Mouth, as also Ulcers in the Throat and Gums, the parts affected being often Gargled and Washed therewith : and if the fore or Ulcer seems ro be inveterate, or putrid, the Collyrium will be ib much the more excellent, if to the former quantity two or three ounces of Common Spirit of Wine be added.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.