Chap. 138. Of Clary, Wild.

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I. The Names. It is called in Greek, Ό;μΛο9 A *->a«Gr: In hat in, Horminum Sylvestre, Ocu-lus Christi, and by fome, Geminalis : and in English, Wild Clary.

II. The Kinds. There are several Species hereof, but the chief, and which we intend to handle in this Work, are these following, viz. 1. Horminum Sylvestre vulgare, Ο cuius Orifli, Wild Clary, especially so called by Camerarius, Cordus, Clusius, Fuch-fius, Gesner, Gerard, hobel, honker us, hug dunelifts, and Turner Brunfelsius calls it, Sara a agrestis and Besler in his Hortus Eyfletenfls, Salvia agrestis flore purpureo : Gesner and Tragus, Salvia agrestis vera Gallitricum verum ( in Italy ) Crfal-pim Sclarea Sylvestris Tabernmontani. 2. Horminum Sylvestre incanum flore albo, Horminum Sylvestre quart urn Niveo flore Clufij, Sclarea Sylvestris flore alboTabernmontaniJalvia agrestis ftore albo horti Eftetenfis, Hoary Wild Clary with a White flower. 3. Horminum Sylvestre havendule flore Bauhini, Sclarea Hifpanica Tabernmontani, Gallitricum alter urn Gerardi,Wnd Clary, with Laven ler F lowers. 4. Horminum Sylvestre falvifolium ma jus if minus Bauhini, Horminum Sylvestre Alatthioli, Csefalpini, Lugdunensis j Orvula altera Dodonxi, Horminum Sylvestre quintum Clufij", Vcrbafcum nigrum falvifolium tic re purpureo hobeli ; Salvia Sylvestris adulteruu Tragi, Sage Leav'd Wild Clary. Authors make many other kinds, but these are all that are found grow-ing with us, either Wild or in Gardens.

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III. The Descriptions. The first kind, or Oculus Christi, has a Root which is long, tough, and black, aitended with many fibres, by which it takes fajt hol% of the Earth, from whence rise up many square Stalks two or three feet high, on which grow broad dark green Leaves, dented about the edges, and somewhat rugged and hard in handling _·, the Flowers grow along towards the tops of the Stalks, like unto the gaping or hooded Flowers of the Garden Clary, but smaller, and of a pale or whitish blew color ; which being past away, there comes in small husks, round blackish or brownish Seed ; the whole Plant has a strong Smell, but it is nothing sο quick as that of our common Garden Clary. There are two other kinds hereof: One, the tops of whose Stalks are purplish, with Flowers of a deeper purple color, and somewhat larger Leaves. Another, differing only in this, that the tops of the Stalks are green, and not purple the Flowers of a pale blew color, and the Leaves a little torn on the edges.

IV. The second kind, or Hoary Wild Clary, with white Flowers, has a long tough black Root, not much differing from the former ; the Leaves in this being almost like those, but more hoary, and a little deeper dented in on the edges, the Stalks are square, and almost a yard high, upon which grow the Flowers in the same manner, faving that these are wholly white, which being past away, there follows small round brownish) Seed.

V. The third, or Lavender flowred Wild Clary, has a Root not much differing from either of the former Wild Claries, from whence come forth square hairy Stalks, two or three feet high, set with harder, narrower, and smoother Leaves, more deeply indented about the edges, and rounder pointed _·, the Flowers are much less than the former h and neither in bigness, nor color, are they greatly differing from the Flowers of Spike or Lavender, they growing in j pices and rundies as the rest do ; the Seed is like to the others, nor does the Smell of the whole Plant differ much from them.

VI. The fourth, or Sage Leav'd Wild Clary, has a long Root, tough and black without, but yellow within, which abides without perishing jor many Years, as the Roots of most of the Wild kinds do : from whence rise up low square Stalks, much about half a yard high, whereon grow hard rugged Leaves, set two at a Joint, very like unto Sage Leaves, but not hoary at all, off a dark green color, and dented about the edges : the Flowers grow at set Spaces round about the Stalks, as in rundies, in some Plants of a fair purple, violet color _·, in others more pale and in others yet, of almost an Ash-color ; which being past away, there comes forth ( when it is ripe ) black small Seed. The Smell of this Plant is more pleasing and less heady than most of the former kinds be. There is another Species of this fourth kind, which differs cine fly from it in this, that it grows much higher, has thicker Stalks, larger and thicker Leaves, j potted with divers white spots and streaks therein _·, else in form and color of Leaves and Flowers, no difference appearing.

VII. Vie Places. The first grows Wild in England, almost every where by the Way side, and lb does the other with the purple Stalks : but that with the green Stalks is not common with us, but grows in many places of Germany and Hung try: Gerard says, that the Oculus Christi grows in Barren places, almost in every Countrey, especially in Holborn-fields, near unto Grays-Inn, in the Highway by the end of a Brick-Wall (there it might possibly grow formerly, but none can be had there now :) also at the hither end of Chelsey towards London, and in the Highways leading from Richmond Palace to the Water-side, and in divers other places. The second grows not Wild here, but only in the Gardens of the Curious. The third grew with Clusius, of the Seed which he had our of Spain, but he faith he found it likewise near the Riding-place of Greenwich -, so that it is manifest, that it is a natural inhabitant of our Countrey. The third grows Wild in Hungary almost every where, in their Vineyards, and by the Way sides, but with us it is chiefly nourished up in Gardens.

VIII. The Times. They all Flower in June and July, as do the Garden Kinds and their Seeds are ripe in the end of August, or not long after.

IX. Their Qualities, Specification, Preparations, and Virtues, are the same with those of the Garden Clary, so that little more need be said thereof here.

X. Observation τ. Dioscorides faith, That the Seed of Oculus Christi, or Wild Clary, drunk with Wine ( from one dram to two drams ) excites Lust _·, and being mixed with Honey, and applied, cleanses the Eyes from Films, and other imperfections lodged in them : and being put whole into the Eyes, it not only limply cleanses, but also purges them very much from Waterish Humors, and so frees them from Redness, Inflammations, and divers other Diseases which happen to them, taking away their Pain and Smarting, one Seed, and no more, being put into the Eye at a time. This, says Gerard, is a general Medicine in Cheflnre, and. other Countries thereabout, known of all, and used with good success.

XI. Observ. 2. The Liquid Juice, or Essence of the Leaves, given from two ounces to four or fix, mixed with a Glass of Generous Wine, and drank warm, dissolves congealed Blood in the Stomach, warms and comforts it, and is very good to help against dimness, and to restore the Eyes to their Pristine State.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.