Chap. 139. Of Clove-Gilliflowers.

Clove Gilliflower. Carnation, Great. Clove Gilliflower, Single. This chapter hasn't been proofread yet.

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I. The Names. It was unknown to the Greeks, X as far as we can learn, but is called of the Latins, Caryopbyllm hortensis, also Veronica, Veto-η tea alt His, Coronaria, Herba Tunica, Ocellus Damaf-cenus, and Barbaricus, of some Cantabrica Plinij, flos Caryopbylleus. Some will have them to be the Iphium Theophrasti in lib. 6. cap. 6 iff 7. others to be his Dios Anthos, or Flos Jovis, but Ruellius faith that they were unknown to the Old Writers ; and his judgment seems to be good, because the Gilliflower is not like to that of Veronica, or Cantabrica _·, and it is a wonder, says he, that such a famous Flower, of so pleasant a Form, and sweet a Smell, should lye hid, arid not be known to the Ancients, which may be thought not inferior to the Rose, in its Variety, Smell, and admirable Beauty. The name Caryophyllus was given to it, I suppose, from its Smell, which is very like to that of the Indian Clove. We in English call it Clove-gilliflower, and Gillijtmers ( quaft July-flowers, because they begin to flower in the Month of July) some also are called Carnations, but that name arises chiefly from the color.

II. The Kinds. They are either Garden or Wild : of the Garden Kinds we shall treat in this Chapter. The Wild are vulgarly called Pinks, of which we shall say nothing here, but refer you to the Chapter under that Title, where we shall fully difcosrfe of them. Of the Garden Kinds, or Gilliflower, some are Single, and some Double. The Single Clovegilliflower some will have to be a Pink, but it is no such thing, for it is oftentimes produced by the Seed of most of the Double Clovegilliflowers, and differs from Pinks in its Shape, Magnitude and Smell : That all the Kinds of Double Flowers produce Seed I am apt to believe ; though some of them, as the Clovegilliflower and Carnation, not very often _·, and Parkinson lays, that they seldom give any Seed, as far as he could observe, and here in England, are usually increased by Slips.

III. As to the Variety of Kinds of this Flower in respect to their various and accidental differences, they are little or few in their Roots, Leaves, Stalks, and manner of growing, but manifold in respect to the Flowers ; as to their Form, Magnitude, and Color, some being of one Color, some of another, some of many, some Striped, some Spotted _·, some finely Dented only, some Jagged or deeply Cut in, &c. I say as to these, we shall take no notice, leaving that work to their consideration, who make the Flower Garden their whole business. Those which we shall treat of here, are only the three following, ( which comprehend all the other Kinds, and Varieties under them) viz.
1. Caryophyllus hortensis pleno rubro, The Clove-gilliflower of a deep Crimson Red.
2. Caryophyllus maximus Anglic us, The Great English Carnation.
3. Caryophyllus minor flore pleno, The lesser Carnation with a Double Flower.

As to the first of these, viz. the Clove-gilliflower, there are the Single Clove, and the Double Clove _·, only of the Double Clove, there are some more Double than others.
As to the second, viz. Caryophillus maximus, or Great Carnation, with that which we describe in Seel. V. following. Parkinson in his Garden of Flowers makes twenty several Varieties _·, to wit, The Great English

lish, the Grey Hub, the Red Huh the Blew dial, the Prince, the White Carnation, the French Carnation, the Ground Carnation, the Cryftal or Cryftal-line, the Red Cryftal, the Fragrant, the flrifd Savage, the Blujh Savage, the Red Savage, the Oxford Carnation, the King's Carnation, the Granado, the Grand Pere, the Camberfine, the Great Red Lombard. As to the Caryophyllus minor, or Lejfer Carnation, called a Giliifiower, we have in Parkinson thirty four Varities, to wit, The Lesser Carnation, the Gallant or Weflminfler, the Briflol Blew, Red Dover, Light or White Dover, Fair Maid, Queens Gilliflower, the Dainty, Braftl Gilliflower, Small Granado, the Turkic, Pool Flower, Pale Pageant, Dainty Lady, best White Gilliflower, London White, Stamell, Purple Gilliflower, Peach Color, blew Gilliflower, Blujh Color, Great Tawney, Light Tawncy, Sad Tawney, Deep Blujh, Pale Blujh, Injants Blujh, the Great Blujh, Marbled Tawney, Princefs or Variable Tawney, Flaked Tawney, Feathred Tawney, Speckled Tawney, and Rose Gilliflower.

IV. The Descriptions. The first of those, or deep red Clove-gilliflower, ( which is that which zee only use in Physick ) has a pretty long, hard, or woody Root, having some small fibres appendent thereto, which endures all the Winter long ; from this Root rises up one or more Stalks, like to those of the Carnations following, growing up sometimes to be a joot and half high, or more, which is round, of an Ajh, or whitish color, and pretty hard, not so thick set with Joints and Leaves, as are the Carnations following but the Stalks are more in number, the Leaves are narrower, and whiter for the mojl part, and in some do a little turn. The Flowers are much smaller than those of/fo Carnation/.?/ a deep red enm-fon color, very thick and double in most ; the green husks in which they ft and are also smaller : the of the Leaves in this Flower ( a* in-all the rest J are dented or jagged, yet in some more than m others. Some also have two white threads, crooked at the

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ends like horns, in the middle of the Flower, whereas several others have none. These kinds, and especially this that has the Deep Red Crimson colored flower, do very well endure the Cold of our Winters, and are With much less care preserved. Ib* Description take as a Rrefident for all the kinds of

Clove-gilliflower for the most part. The flowers are like unto the Clove-gilliflowers, and about the same bigness and duplicity, yet in some they are much greater than in others, out of a pale yellowish Carnation color, (tending something to an Orange) with two small white threads, and crooked at the ends, in the middle, but some have none. The Smell is weaker than that of the Clove-gilliflower, delectable enough to that Sense. This kind is more apt to bear Seed than any other, which is small, black, fat, and long, and being Sown, yields wonderful varieties of Flowers, both Single and Double ; some being of a lighter or deeper color than the Original or Mother Plant _·, some with stripes in most of the Leaves others are striped or spotted, like one of the great speckled Carnations or Gilliflowers, tn various forts or kinds, and that both Single and Double : Some again are wholly of one color, like the Original or Mother Riant, and are either more or less Double than it _·, or else are Single, with one row of Leaves, like to a Pink. And some of these are also wholly of a crimson red, or deeper, or lighter, or variably spotted, double, or jingle as a Pink, or blush, either single or double, yet but very seldom white ; whilst all of them in the green Leaves of the Stalks nothing at all percept ably differing.

V. The second, or greatest English Carnation, has a Root which is branched into several great, long, and woody Arms or Parts, having many small Libres annexed to them, yet is very difficultly preserved in Winter, for which reason it is not altogether so common as the other Carnations and Glove-gilliflowers. Lrom this Root rises up a great thick round Stalk, divided into several Branches, somewhat thickly set with Joints, and at every Joint two long Leaves, rather green than whitish, somewhat broader than Clove-gilliflower Leaves, turning or winding Jwo or jhrec times round (yet in some other kinds of Carnations, they are plain, but bending their points downwards, and in some also of a dark reddish green color, in others not so dark, but rather of a whitish green color: ) The Flowers ft and at the tops of the Stalks, in long, great, round, green husks, which are divided into Jive points, out of which rife many long and broad pointed Leaves, deeply jagged at the ends, set in order, round and beautiful, making a noble great double Flower, of a deep Carnation color, almost red,jpotted with many bluish spots and ftrakes, some greater, and some lesser,of an excellent, delightful and pieajant sweet Smell, not too Quick, as many others of this kind are, nor yet too dull, and with two whitish crooked threads, like horns in the middle. Phis kind never bears many Flowers, but as it is slow in growing so it is also in bearing _·, it is a magnificent flower, and shews a kind of stateliness, for it will not endure to be often handled. This

This may serve for all them of this kind. VL lt?e third, or Lesser Kind of Carnation, has a Root much like to the former, but something lesser, having from it Stalks next the ground, thick set, but mhjmalleF or narrower Leaves than the

III. The Places. These are all nourished in Gardens throughout all England: of the first kind, I have seen whole Fields of them planted in Kent for the use of the Markets in London. The third was brought out of Silefia, but now is become a free Denizon, and absolute native of this Kingdom, it growing and thriving as well here with us, as any of the former.

VIII. The Times. They Flower not until the heat of the Year, which is about the latter end of June and in July, ( unless it be an extraordinary hot Season) and they continue flowering, until the Cold of the Autumn nip them, or till they have wholly spent themselves out h and are generally, (as was said before ) increased by Slips. The Clove-gift' flowers by reason of their hardness, being better able to endure the Cold of Winter, are usually planted

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in Gardens : but the Carnations and Gilliflowers, by reason of their tenderness, are usually Planted in Pots, that they may be housed, and so kept and preserved from the extream cold of our Winters.

IX. The Qualities. These Plants as to their Roots, Leaves and Flowers, are temperate in respect to heat or cold : Astringent, Sudoririck, Traumatick, Cordial, Neurotick, Alterative, and Alexipharmick.

X. The Specification. It is peculiar against Fainting and Swooning Fits.

XI. The Preparations. You may have therefrom,
1. An Inspissate Juice.
2. A Syrup.
3. An Essence.
4. A Conserve.
5. A Distilled Water.
6. A Spirituous Tincture.
7. An Acid Tincture with Vinegar.

The Virtues.

XII. The Inspissate Juice. It is highly Cordial, and may be dissolved in white Port Wine or Canary, to make a Tincture of atplealure, against fainting and swooning Fits, Sickness at Heart, Malignity of the Plague and Poison.

XIII. The Syrup made with Water, as is taught in out Pharmacopoeia Londinenfis ιώ.\. cap. 16. felt. 18. thus: Tate Clove-gilliflowers (the Whites being cut off) a pound : infuse them all night in Spring Water two pounds : being strained, with double-refined white Sugar four pounds, make a Syrup ( without boiling ) only by melting the Sugar. This Syrup is temperate in Quality, strengthens the Heart, Stomach and Liver _·, it is Pectoral and Cordial, and may be mixt with other Cordial Liquors, against malignant Fevers, and the Plague _·, as also against Faintings, Swoonings and the like. It refreshes the Vital Spirits, chears the Heart, and refills Poison.

XIV. The Syrup made with white Port Wine or Canary. It is made exactly as the former, and has all the same Virtues _·, only it is a greater and more famous Cordial, more powerful against Faintings and Swoonings, to comfort a languishing Stomach, as also to chear the Heart and revive the Vital Powers.

XV. The Syrup made with Wine Vinegar. It is made exactly as that with Water, putting in the same quantity of Vinegar instead of the Water. It is opening, and refills Vapors which fly into the Brain; it fortifies the Stomach, comforts the Heart, chears the languishing and drooping Spirits; it helps Digestion, and prevails against all Diseases proceeding from Choler or heat of Blood, as Malign and Pestilential Fevers, and Fevers not Pestilential: it cools the Bloody refills Poison, quenches Thirst, and is helpful against the Vertigo. Dose of any of these three Syrups, an ounce at a time in any convenient Vehicle.

XVI. The Essence. It has all the Virtues of the Inspissate Juice and Syrup; it is good against Diseases of the Heart, Head and Stomach, very Cordial, special good against Hectick Fevers, to stop Fluxes and help such as spit Blood: and as it chears the Heart and revives the Spirits, so it powerfully refills Melancholy. Dose from two drams to four.

XVII. The Conserve. It is Cordial, chears the Heart and strengthens the Stomach, and is only eaten as a Sweet-meat. It is good for old People, to eat in a morning failing.

XVIII. The distilled Water. It is made by a ve-rY gentle heat in Balneo, is Cordial, and may be used as a Vehicle, to convey other Cordial Medica-Ine2tsrin '■> besides which, it is of excellent Use to wash fore Eyes withal, washing them therewith fiv *r «x times a day.


XIX. The Spirituous Tincture. It is a greur Preservative against all manner of Malign, Infectious, and Pestilential Diseases, and ought to be used preventively, as first in the Morning faffing _· secondly about four in the Afternoon _·, thirdly at Bed time. It more powerfully comforts the Stomach, chears the Heart, and revives the Spirits, than any of the former Preparations. It may be prepared with common Spirit of Wine : and then it may be taken alone of it self, from one spoonful to two, according to the A{je of the person or otherwise mixt with Wine, or some other Vehicle.

XX. The Acid Tincture made with Vinegar. It comforts the Stomach much, chears the Heart, helps Digestion, stops Vomiting, is good against spitting Blood, and strengthens the Retentive Faculty. It cuts tough Flegm, corrects the heat and malignity of Choler, helps Expectoration, and quenches Thirst in burning Fevers. It is an excellent thing to be given in the Cure of the Plague, and of all manner of Malign and Pestilential Diseases.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.