Chap. 171. Of Cross-Wort.
This chapter hasn't been proofread yet.
I. The Names. This Plant, as it was unknown A to the ancient Greeks, so it has no Greek Name retaining to it: but it is called in Latin, Cruciata, and Crucial*^ fiom the Situation of the Leaves. Thalius calls it Cruciata herniaria ; and Lobel, Cruciata minor, to distinguiih it hom-Gentiana Crauciata. Lugdunensis calk it AfperuU aurea; it is also called Gallium Secundum Tragi, for his primum is.Gentiana Cruciata -9 bauhinus calls it Cruciata hirsuta-: in English, Cross-wort9 and Golden Cross-wort*
II. The Kinds. Authors make four kinds thereof, as the Cruciata vulgaris, our Common Crois-wort -..Cruciata minor lutea, Small yellow Cross-wort: Cruciasa minor montana,Sim]l Mountain Cross-wort and Cruciata minima muralis, The least Wall Cross-werr*: but as-of these, there is but one, and that is the first of them which grows in England, so we shall take the Pains only to describe it.
III. The Description. It has a Root which is very small and full of Fibres, which taking hold of the Earth, spreads with the branches over a great deal
of Ground, which perishes not in the Winter, thS the Leaves die away every Year, and spring again afresh. from this Root spring up square hairy brown Stalks, something more than a foot high, having four small, broad and pointed hairy, yet smooth, not rugged, yellow green Leaves, growing at every Joint, each against other croft-wife, from whence proceeds the Name. Towards the tops of the Stalks, at the Joints with the Leaves, in three or four rows upwards, stand small. Pale, yellow Flowers, after which come small, blackish, round Seed, four for the most part contained in every Husk.
IV. The Places. It grows in many moist Grounds, as well Meadows as other wild and untilFd places about London : in the Church-yard at Hampstead, near London: at Wye in Kent: at Rand, near Ring-more in Sussex, along the High-way _·, and in a Pasture adjoining to the Church-yard at Hampstead by the Mill: also in a Lane or Highway beyond Charlton a small Village near Greenwich, and in several other places.
V. The Times. It flowers for the most part from May all the Summer long, in one place or other, as it grows more or less in the Sun h and the Seed ripens loon after.
VI. The Qualities. It is temperate in respect of Heat or Cold; and dry in the second degree. It is singularly Astringent and admirably Traumatick or Vulnerary.
VII. The Specification. It is dedicated to the Cure of green Wounds, Ulcers and Ruptures.
VIII. The Preparations. You may have therefrom, 1. A liquid Juice. 2. An Essence. 3. A Decoction. 4. A Pouder. 5. An Ointment or Balsam. 6. A Cataplasm. 7. Λ Spirituous Tincture. 8. An Acid Tincture. 9. An Oily Tincture.
IX. The liquid Juice. Taken to 2 of 3 ounces jn Red Port Wine, or Wine mixed with Water, it "ops inward Bleedings, as also the Bleedings of inward Wounds, and consolidates and heals them: applied also outwardly to green Wounds, it does the same^ for by closing the Lips of Wounds quickly together, the Cure soon after succeeds.
X. The Essence. It has the Virtues of the Juice, but more powerful for the same Intentions t Came* rarius dys it helps to expectorate Flegm out of the Thorax, and is good against the Obstructions of the Lungs or Stomach ; as also other Obstructions in the Meferaick Veins, LacFeals, and other Viscera. Dole 2 or 2 ounces in Wine, &c.
XI. The Decoction. It has the same Virtues with the Juice and Essence, but not full out so effectual 1 nevertheless, (the Decoction being made in Wine, or in Water with Wine added to it) it is often given as a Wound-drink, in which way of Exhibition it is very efficacious : and mixed with Spirit of Wine, it is good to cleanse old running Sores, and putrid Ulcers ; cleansing the same, and inducing them to a speedy healing. It cures also Ruptures.
XII. The Pouder. It is made of the dry'd Leaves. Taken to a dram Morning and Evening, it is good to stop any inward Bleeding, spitting of Blood, pissing of Blood, or Bloody-flux : the same it does also being applied to any bleeding Wound. Italic* dries up Moisture in Ulcers, and stops the Flux of any running Sore, being applied after washing the same with the Juice, Essence or Decoction of the same Plant before specified.
XIII. The Ointment or Balsam. They cleanse, and are admirably drying and healing _·, give Eafe -where the Pain is extravagant, allay the Inflammation, breed Flesh where it is wanting dry up the Moisture, and produce the Cicatrize in a very short time.
XIV. The Cataplasm. Made of the green Herb with the Pouder of the dryed Herb, and applied, it stops the Bleeding in Wounds, prevents the Afflux of Humors, and ib by consequence Pain and Inflammation. Applied to simple Contusions, it difanTes them, and quickly restores the Part to its former State of Health.
XV. The Spirituous Tincture. It heals inward Wounds, and stops inward Bleedings, restores the Tone of the Bowels being hurt, is good against Ruptures, Bloody-fluxes, Diarrhea, Lienteria, and the Hepatick-flux, and has indeed all the Virtues of the Juice and Essence. Dose 1 or 2 ounces in Wine, or any other fit Vehicle.
XVI. The Acid Tincture. It is good to expectorate tough and viicous Humors, opens Obstructions of the Viscera, strengthens the Stomach, and helps a decayed Appetite: it may be taken inwardly in Wine to a grateful Acidity every day, two, three or four times a day : if mix'd with Water to a Grate- _· fulness, and a little dulcified with Syrup of Clove-gilliflower s, it abates the Heat of Fevers, allays Inflammations of the Lungs, quenches Thirst, and represses Vapors, being taken as ordinary Drink.
XVII. The Oily Tincture. It is eminently good against Punctures of the Nerves, heals nervous Wounds, gives ease in the Gout tho' never so extream, and in a short time cures it: it strengthens the Joints, and is singularly good against Convulsions and Palsies, being duly anointed upon the Parts affected.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.