Chap. 172. Of Crowfoot Meadow.
This chapter hasn't been proofread yet.
I. The Names. It is called in Greek, K*Te*y«'r 1 (Prog-wort:) in Latin, Ranunculus, also Pes Coivi, and PesCorvinus: in Englifl, Crowfoot, King Cob, Gold Cups, and Butter-flowers.
II. The Kinds. Authors are in a Wood about this Pijnt, and nuke ib many general kinds thereof* that it is difficult to reduce each Species to its proper Claffis. However, since we inrend only to treat of them which grow in England, ( fetting afide the Ranunculi Mont am, which were never known to grow with us in our Country ) and that we may be intelligent to the Vulgar, we shall divide them into the five following Cla/fes, viz. I. Î²Î±τ&%«* xuuamr, Ranunculus Pratensis^ Meadow Crowfoot, of which in this Chapter. 2. Î²λτ^_γ mtmf, Ranunculus Agrestis, Field, or Fallow-field Crowfoot, of which in Chap. 17?. 3. Î²Î±τ^';^ Ivhrfest, Ranunculus Ne-moraiu, of which in Chap. 174. 4. Î²λτ^ο* hvf&9, Ranunculus Aquaticus, Water Crowfoot, of which in Chap. 175. 5. B*T#t#5K ietejr, Ranunculus Hortensis, Garden Crowfoot, of which in^Chap. ιηβ. following.
Ill Of Meadow Crowfoot we have growing with us five several kinds, 1. Ranunculus Pratensis communis, The Common Meadow Crowfoot. 2. Ranunculus pratensis dulcis, simplex and multiplex, Meadow Crowfoot sweet, ( or not biting ) single and double flowred. 3. Ranunculus pratensis repens, Common creeping Meadow Crowfoot. 4. Ranunculus Bulbosus five Tuberosus, Knobbed or Tuberous Crowfoot. 5. Ranunculus Globosus, Globe Crowfoot.
Among these leaves rise up small twiggy Stalks which stand upright, a foot high, or higher, fijne-times (according to the goodness of the Ground) a foot and half high at the tops of the Stalks and Branches come forth many fine yellow Flowers, glittering of a Golden color, having five Leaves apiece-, the middlepart of which plowers are filled with marry small Threads of like color _·, which being past, the Seed follows,contained m a rough Ball or Husk. Of this kind there is also one with double Flowers.
Π The Descriptions. Common Meadow Crow-loot (whose Branches or Stalks stand upright, and oend not down again unto the Ground, neither creep
hereon, or spread, taking root again in divers places, as the third kind following does ) has a white Root, which is aniofi wholly fibrous 5 fam whence spring up many large dark green Leaves, cut intolivers parts pm^pt ruling the fprladug of a CroJs EM, having, a very sharp, hot /Jd burning Taste, very much biting the Tongue and blifiering tie Skin, if laid thereon, not much Î¹φ than J Jer ^ Qrl roding and Ex ulcerating Herb can do\ which Leaves have now and then some blackish Spots upon them but these Spcts happen not in all, nor in all places.
V. The second, or sweet kind, has a Root consisting of many white Fibres, as the former, from whence rises up several great, broad, dark, green Leaves, spread upon the Ground, a little hairy, cut in on the edges into five Divisions, and a little dented also. about, especially at the ends, and of a paler yellowish green on the under side, of a sweet and not unpleasant Taste _·, for I call it Sweet Crowfoot, not because it fme Ussweet, but because it has no sharp, biting or exulcerating Taste, as most of the other Crowfoots have, being so sweet, soft and pleasant, that the People in many places do stew the Leaves, when they are young, with other Herbs, to eat them after the manner of a boiled Sallet. Erem among these Leaves rise up several hairy Stalks, a foot or foot^ and half high, with some Leaves upon them more divided, and cut into smaller and narrower parts than those which are lower. At the tops of these Stalks and Branches stand many fair Golden yellow colored Flowers, with yellow Thrumbs in their middle, so very like to the former Common Meadow Crowfoot, that they are not easy to be discerned asunder : the rough Heads and Seed following them are also like the other before described. Of this kind there is one also with double plowers.
VI. The third, or creeping kind, has a white and thready Root, from whence spring forth several Leaves, which are divided into many parts, commonly into three, sometimes into five, cut here and there in the edges, as if they were snipt, of a deep green color, upon which are found divers white Spot?. From among these leaves spring up the Stalks, which are
round, and something hairy h some of them bend down towards the Ground, trailing as it were, and put forth many Roots at the Joints, which are small white fibres, by which it takes hold of the Ground, and so encreases or spreads it self far about. Some of toe principal Stalks stand upright, a foot high or higher, and sometimes they seem to be rather leaning than upright: at the tops of these Stalks and their Branches come forth the Flowers, consisting of five heaves apiece, and of a glorious Gold yellow color, and a Golden-colored Thrumb in the middle, which being past, yield knobby rough Heads of Seed, very like to we first. The sharp Taste of the heaves and Flowers are also like to the same. Of this fund there is also one with double Flowers, which is nurs'd up in Gardens.
VII. The fourth, or tuberous kind, has a Root white and round, of the bigness sometimes of a Wall-nut, and sometimes much less, not much bigger than a Bean or large Filbert, with some long Fibres, especially at the end of it, which is of a more sharp and biting Taste than any of the former: from this Root spring up divers Leaves, much more cut in and divided than any of the former, every one of them standing on a short Foot-stalk, of an over-worn green color : among which rise up several slender Stalks, a foot or foot and half high, with some Leaves thereon at the Joints, more divided, and into longer and narrower parts than those below _·, at the tops of the , Stalks and Branches come forth fair shining Gold-colored Flowers, consisting of five Leaves apiece, like the former kinds, with many Threads in the middle, standing about a green Head which after the Flowers are past, grows to be more rough or prickly than the seedy Heads of any of the aforegoing. Of this kind is that thought to be which bears double yellow Flow-€rs, one out of another, called Anglicus bulbosus or tuberosus. Also another, whose Flower is single, and red, like an Orange.
VIII. The fifth, or Globe kind, ( called in the Northern Countries of England, where it grows, lacker Goulous) has a Root composed of many blackish Fibres or Strings, from whence rise many fair,
broad, dark green Leaves next the Ground, ftaseding upon long Foot-stalks, which Leaves are deeply cut or jagged into five, fix or seven Divisions, and besides nipt in or dented on the edges among which rises up a S. a Ik, divided towards the top into some Branches : on the Stalk are set finch-like Leaves as are below, but smaller. On the tops of the Stalk and Branches grow several large fair yellow Flowersxon-fiOmg offive Leaves apiece, or rather of eleven Leaves for themofi part, set or placed in three rows, and always folded inwards, or rouled up together like a round Ball or Globe, like a close Flower never blowing, (from whence came the Aame:) they have many yellow Threads in the middle, standing round about a green rough Head, which in time grows to be full of small Knobs, wherein is contained small black Seed.
IX. The Places. They all grow in Fields and Meadows, or Pasture-Grounds, thto' all England, especially the four first kinds. The fifth kind grows wild in most places of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and other bordering Shires in the Northern parts of this Kingdom, almost in every Meadow _·, but has not been yet found wild in any of the Southern or Western parts of England.
X. The Times. They flower in May and June, and the Seed is ripe in July and August.
XI. The Qualities, Specification, Ρ reparations Virtues and Uses, see in Chap. 176. following, where they will be handled at large.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.