Chap. 176. Of Crowfoot Garden.

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I. The Names. It is called in Greek, βΛτ&,%_·ν X MMmvm xj (τπΌεψΛν, jy npi&r: in Latin, Ranunculus Sativus vel hortensis : in English, Garden or Manured Crowfoot.

II. The Kinds. Of the Ranunculi which Florists now stuft their Gardens withal, there is such a great number of them, that it would not be easie to name them all, much less to describe them; a great part of them being originally Exoticks 01 Foreigners, but being brought to us, and prolpering well by a Cultivating in our Gardens, they were made free Deni-20ns, (as it were) and so at length became Natives of our Soil. The chief of those which we shall take notice of in this Work, are the eighteen following.

III. 1. Ranunculus montanus albus major, Great single white Mountain Crowfoot. 2. Ranunculus montanus albus humilior duplici fiore, The low double white Mountain Crowfoot. 3. Ranunculus albus flore pleno, The double white Crowfoot. 4. Ranunculus pratensis flore multiplici, The double yellow Field Crowfoot. \ $. Ranunculus Anglicus maximus multiplex, Gaiden double yellow Crowfoot, called also Batchelors-buttons. 6. Ranunculus Gramine us duplice fiore, Double-flowred Grass-like Crowfoot. 7. Ranunculus Creticus Latifolius, Broad-leav'd Candy Crowfoot. 8. Ranunculus Creticus albus, The white Candy Crowfoot. 9. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore Rubro, Single red Asian Crowfoot. 10. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore Amplo rubro, The large single red Asian Crowfoot. 11. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore rubro vario fimplici, The single red stript Asian Crowfoot. 12. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore luteo vario fimplici, The single yellow stript Asian Crowfoot. 13. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore rubro pleno, The double red Asian Crowfoot. 14. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore pleno prolijero, The double-buttoned red Asian Crowfoot. 1$. Ranunculus Thaliffri folio major, The greater Columbine leav'd Crowfoot. 16. Ranunculus ThaliUri folio ninor Afipbodcli radice, Small Columbine-leav'd Crowfoot. 17. Ranunculus Illyricus, Illyrian Crowfoot. 18. Ranunculus folio Plantaginis, The Plantain-leav'd Crowfoot. 6

IV. The Descriptions. 'Fhe first, or Great single white Mountain Crowfoot, has a Root consisting of many long, thick, whitish Strings, running out from a thick Head. From this Root spring forth large and green Leaves, divided into three parts, and sometimes into live special Divisions, and besides each of those parts are dented about the edges, somewhat resembling the Leaves of Globe Crowfoot, but larger. The Stalk is two feet and half high, having three small Leaves, set at the joint of the Stalk, where it branches out into Flowers, which stand sour or five together upon long Foot-stalks, made of five white Leaves apiece, very sweet in Smell, with some yellow Threads in the middle, encompassing a green Head, which, with the Seed, is very like to other Crowfeet of the Wild kind. There is one of this kind which is also lefier.

V. The second, or Low double white Mountain Crowfoot, has a Root composed of many white Strings, from whence proceed three or four broad thick Leaves, almost round, and pretty deeply cut in on the edges, of a fine green and shining color on the upper side, but not so green underneath, among which rises up a small short Stalk, bearing one Snow-white Flower on the top, pretty large, and a little double as it were, with two rows of Leaves, with divers yellow TJ?reads in the middle, standing about a green Head, which in time grows to be like to a small green Strawberry, and full of Seed. There is also a jingle sort of this kind, having only one white Flower on the top of each Branch, which is lesser, and consists only of five round-pointed Leaves, being in all things else like the other.

VI. The third, or Double white Crowfoot, is of the same kind with the first, but lesser; its Roots, Stalks and Leaves being alike in all respects : the chief Difference is in the Flowers, which in this Plant are very thick and double. The Leases are jair, cut into five Divisions, and a little dented about the edges, green on the upper side, and pale underneath, having many Veins running thro' the Leaves: the Stalk grows not very high, not much above a foot and half in height, which is spread into many Branches, whose tops are reasonably (rored with double white Flowers, as aforesaid.

VII. The fourth, or Double yellow Field Crowfoot , has a Root running and creeping under the Ground, like as the single does; from whence proceeds its Leaves and Stalks, in which there is but little difference from the single Wild km I, which grow in every Meadow, being large, and divided into four or five parts, and indented about the edges, but they are something j mailer, and of a brisker green. The Flowers stand on the many Branches, much divided or separated, being not very great, but very ■ thickjind double.

VIII. The fifth, or Great English Garden double yellow Crowfoot, called also Batchelors-buttons, has a Root round, like unto a small white Turnep, with several Fibres adjoining to it: from which arise many great black, green Leaves, jagged and cut into three Divisions, each to the middle Rib: from among these Lewes spring up the Stalks, which spread themselves out into several Branches, and which have some smaller Leaves on them ; and those which are next under the Branches, are long and narrow, the higher up, the longer and narrower. The flowers are of a greenish yellow color, very thick and double of Leaves ; in the middle of which rises up a small Stalk, bearing another double Flower, like to the 0-ther out of which it grows, but smaller; which being passd away, there comes a roundish rough Head of Seed, much like to the other Crowfeet.

IX. The sixth, or Double-flowred Grass-like Crowfoot, has a Root composed of many thick, long

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round, white Strings, from whence proceed long and narrow Leaves, somewhat like unto Grab, or rather like to the Leaves of single Gilliflowers or Pinks, being small and sharp-pointed, a little hollow, and of a whitish green color. from among these Leaves spring "up several slender Stalks, bearing at the tops each one small yellow flower, which is double, as confiliing of two rows of Leaves, with some Threads in the middle. There is also a single sort of this Species, the Flower being small, and^ consisting of jive yellow Leaves, with yellow Threads in the middle, like to other Crowfeet.

X. The seventh, or Broad-leav'd Candy Crowfoot, has a Root somewhat like those of the Allan Crowfoot, or composed of a number of tough Roots, like those of the yellow Asphodil: it has the greatest and broadest Leaves of all the sorts of Crowfeet, being almost round, and without any great Divisions, dented a little about the edges here and there, as large or larger sometimes than the Palm of ones Hand ; of a light green color, yet some of the Leaves are here and there deeply divided. Among these Leaves rises up a Stalk, not very high when it does first flower; but afterwards as the flowers do open themselves, it grows to be about a foot and half high, having some Leaves on it deeply cut in and divided. The Stalk is also thick, round and ft iff, and shoots it self forth into two or three Branches, at the fetting on of which grow longish Leaves, a little dented about their ends. These Branches bear many fair yellow Flowers, consisting of five round-pointed Leaves apiece, standing each a little distance from other, so that the green points of the Cups shew themselves between them, and having yellow Threads in the middle, but become somewhat whitish when the Flower has flood blown a little time.

XI. The eighth, or White Candy Crowfoot, has a Root confiHing of many small Grains or Kernels, of a dark or dusky greyish color, set together, and its Leaves are very like to the Leaves of the Red Asian Crowfoot, being somewhat broad and indented about the edges, some of the Leaves being cut in or

gafht, making thereby as it were three Divisions, of from their Roots, by a careful and skilful looking

large Flower, consisting of five Leaves, every one of them being narrower at the bottom than at the top, and not standing round and close one to another, but with a certain di fiance between, of a dusky yellowish red color on the outside, and of Δ deep red on the inside, the middle being Jet with many Thrumbs of a dark purple color. The Head for Seed is long, and scaly or chaffy, and not profitable for fowing, as not fprtnging again.

XIII. The tenth, or Large finale red Asian Crowfoot, has a Root much like the former, its Leaves are broader and greater. The Stalk is much of the same height as the other, and branched out, with like Leaves thereupon : the flower is also larger, and the Leaves thereof broader, being sometimes eight in a Flower, standing round and close one to another, 0} a deep red color, which makes it look the fairer, and have the more excellent shew : in all other re-fpcffs, it is like the last.

XIV. IT?.? eleventh, or Single red stript Asian Crowfoot, has a Root, Stalk and Leaf very like to the two last aforegoing, and in the manner of growing, differing chiefly in the flower, which being red, like the two beforegoing, has yet some yellow Stripes or Veins thro' every Leaf: these Stripes are sometimes but few and little, and sometimes so much that it seems to be party colored red and yellow. It is a very tender riant, and apt to perish, unless carefully fookt after.

XV. The twelfth, or Single yellow stript Asian Crowfoot, has a Root not much unlike to any of the tliree last described, but the Leaves are very different, being very much divided. The Flower is large, of a fine paltfh green yellow color, consisting of fix and seven, and sometimes of eight or nine round Leave* * the tops of which have reddish Spots upon them, and the edges also sometimes, with like pur-ρÎ_ϊβ Thrums in the middle as the other have. It has been observed, that none of the kinds of Crowfeet with these kernelly Roots, ever bear so good Seed, which being sown, will spring up and grow in England $ so that with us they can only be propagated

a pale green color, with many white Spots in them. The Stalk rises up a foot high, with some Leaves on it, which are more divided than the lower, and divided at the top into two, and sometimes into three Branches, each of them bearing a fair Snow-white Flower, something large, included at first in a brown ifh Husk or Cup of Leaves, which afterwards stand under the Flowers, consisting of five white, large, round-pointed Leaves, having in their middle many blackish purple Thrumbs, encompassing a small, long, green Head, composed of many Scales, or chaffie whitish Husks when they are rife. They yield Seed, but it is unprofitable, as yielding no new Plants. Some of this kind have their Flowers purple-edged: some again have their Flowers with Veins of the same purple ; and some of them are edged with a bright red color, not differing in any other particular.

XII. The ninth, or Single red Asian Crowfoot, has a Root made of many Grains or small Kernels set together, and closing at the Head, but spreading it self, ij it likes the Ground, under the upper Cruft of the Earth into many Roots, encreaftng from long Strings which run from the middle of the small Head of Grams, as well as from the Head it self. The lower Leaves are always whole, without Divisions, being only somewhat deeply indented about the edges : but the others which rise after them, are more cut in, sometimes into three, and sometimes into five Divisions, and notched also about the edges The Stalk rises higher than any of the jormcr, and has on it two or three smaller Leaves, more cut in and divided than those below j at the top whereof stands one


XVI. The thirteenth, or Double red Asian Crowfoot, has a Root so like to the Single red kind, at feet. 12. above, that none can perceive any difference between them, so also it is the same in its Stalk and Leaves, that the difference or kinds are not to be known till the Buds of the Flowers do appear, which after it is any thing forward, may be perceived to be greater and fuller than the Buds of the single kind. This double sort bears most commonly but one jair large double Flower on the tops of the Stalks, composed of many Leaves set close together in three or four rows, of an admirable Crimson color, declining to Scarlet, the outer Leaves being larger than the inner ; and instead of Thrums, it has many small Leaves set together. It has also fix small, narrow, green Leaves on the back-side of the Flower, where the Foot-stalk is joined to it.

XVII. The fourteenth, or Double buttoned red Asian Crowfoot, has Roots, Stalks, Leaves and Flowers so like the former, that before the time of flowering they are not to be distinguished one from another. The Flower is of the same Color and Duplicity, but herein they differ, that this has another double Flower growing upon a Foot-stalk issuing out of the middle of tl>e first Fhwer, of the same color, but much smaller, which Gerard thinks does happen by reason 0} the Strength of the Root, and Goodness of the Soil where it is planted. It is a noble Flower, and of great Excellency.

XVIII. The sixteenth, or Greater Columbine-leav'd Crowfoot, has a Root made of a tufft of white Fibres

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or Strings, very bitter, and creeps here and there, fat ting up new Shoots. The Leaves of this Crowfoot have Jong Stalks, and are very like unto the fitesler Leaves tf Cbtornbines, or the Great Spanish Thalichum, or Meadow-Rue, which has sLeaves very like unto Columbine Leaves, four or five sevent ones * rising from the Root. The Stalk grows up to the I'dght of about half a yard, something reddish, and befiet here and there with the like Leaves : at the topJland Jrceral small white flowers, consisting • <f Hve leaves apiece, with some pale white Threads in the middle : the Seed is round and reddish, and contained in small Husks or Horns. This is the A-tjuilegia minor Dalefchampii, and Ranunculus precox fecundus Thalietri folio Clusii.

XIX. The sixteenth, or Small Columbine-lea v'd Crowfoot, has a Root consisting of three, Jour or more, thick, short and roundish or oval yellow Bulbs or tuberous Produtlions from the main Root or Head, like unto the Asphodil Roof, From this Root spring forth three cr four winged Leaves spread upon the Ground, standing upon long Stalks, and consisting of many small Leaves set together, spreading from the middle Rib, every Leafsomewhat resemblmg the smallest and youngeft Leaves of Columbines. The Floxcers arc white, standing at the tops of the Stalks, made of five round Leaves.

XX. The Jeventeenth, or IHyrian Crowfoot, has a Root which consists of a Bunch of small oval tuberous Roots or Grains, growing close together, with some Fibres adjoining, not much unlike to those of Pilewoft ί from whence spring forth ( upon long Foot-stalks) three, four or more narrow greyish green Leaves, divided into four, five or more long slender parts, of a Silver-white shining color underneath, and covered with a certain Downiness. The Stalks are firm and round, but small, a foot high or more, having some such-like Leaves thereon about the middle, and spreading into three or four Branches, every top bearing a small finning pale yellow Flower, consisting of five Ldwes, and some times two together upon a Stalk. There is a greater kind of this Plant, like to it in all respects, but only that the Leaves, Stalk and Flowers are greater and larger, the leaves broader and greener on the upper side, and not fully of so Silver a white color underneath : the Flowers are of a fair deep yellow color, and greater than the former _· but the Root has not so many small Grains of Kernels set together, from whence white Strings shoot forth, by which it is nourished and encreased.

XXI. The eighteenth, or Plantaneleav'd Crowfoot, has a Root composed of many white Strings or Fibres , proceeding from a Head which is somewhat hairy, and abides many Pears _·, the Leaves wholly perishing in the end of Summer, and springing again in March : from this Root rise up three or four Leaves set on pretty long Foot-stalks, being some what long and broad, like unto Plantane Leaves, with Ribs therein, but more pointed at the ends, not divided or dented about the edges, but smooth and plain, with some Veins running thro' the length of them, and pointed at the ends, of a whitish grey green color, circled as it were with a white Down. The Stalk is firm, round and green, about half a yard high, bearing two or three longer Leaves, broad at the bottom, and encompassing the Stalk, which divides Jt self at the top into two or three small Branches, having every one of them a small long Leaf at the foot thereof, and a reasonable large Flower at the Head, ( without any Smell) consisting of five white round-pointed Leaves, with many yellowish Threads 'P the middle, which growing ripe, has many Seeds Jet together, like to divers other kinds of Crow-

XXII. The Places. The Names or most or these Plants shew Whence they originally came _·, however, by Transplantarion, they are row Natives of our own Land, being all of them found in ibme one or other of our biorifi's Gardens, where they rlouriih admirably well.

XXIII: The dives. The Broad-ιοÎ±νΊ Candy Crowfoot flower more early, viz. in March or April: the others Hower from April to the end of June ; and the Seed is ripe in July and August.

XXIV'. The Qualities. The hot, biting and ex-ulcerating kinds, ( which are those only whose Virtues we design to give you in this place) are hot and dry in the fourth Degtee-, and exulcerating.

XXV. The Specification. They are peculiar for curing the Scrcphula or Kings-Evil.

XXV L The Preparations. You may have therefrom, I. A liquid juice of the Roots or Leaves. 2. An Essence. 7,. A Pouder of the Roots, Flowers or Leaves. 4. A Cataplasm of the same. 5. A Deco^ tlion. 6. An Ointment. 7". A distilled Water. Some are for ufing the Roots only, some for the Flowers, some for the leaves, but they may be all taken and used promiscuously, according to the Intentions but none of them to be used inwardly, being but little better than Poyson, by reason of their exulcerating Property _·, more especially the Illyrian Crowfoot, which some call Apium Sylvestre, and some Apium Rifus, but is not the true Apium Rifus, of which we speak in its proper place. But as to this Illyrian or Laughing Crowfoot, if it is taken inwardly, it is laid to cause the Person to fee divert ltrange Sights, and to kill them Laughing : without doubt, it hurts the Senses and Understanding, and rather causes Cramps, Convulsions, and Wring-ings or Drawings of the Mouth and Jaws awry, seeming to the Standers by as if the Patient Laughed, and dying in this Condition, to dye Laughing, whereas it was no Laughing, nor was the Party in any Condition to Laugh, but rather it was a violent Convulsion of the Nerves, causing the Man or Wck man to die with great Torment.

The Virtues.

XXVII. The liquid Juice. It is sharp and biting^ good to bath gently those Parts of the Skin which are affected with Scurff, Morphew, Leprosie, Freckles, Spots, Yellowness, Roughness, &c. The Skin is first to be washed with warm Water very well^ to loosen and open the Pores thereof then being wiped dry, to be immediately bathed with this Juice, which is to be done twice a day. It is good also to drv away Scabs and Itch.

XXVIII. The Essence. It is powerful to all the Intentions aforesaid, but more drying. It is good to waste away and consume Warts, Corns, hard Scabs of the Skin, Ruggedness of the Nails, and 0-ther like Deformities of the Cutis. The Head being washed with it, it kills Worms at the Roots of the Hair, which eat the same and cause it to fall of f. Neither Juice nor Essence, by reason of their Violence, are ever used inwardly.

XXIX. The Pouder. It is cleansing and drying, and is good to be strewed into old, running and putrid Sores, and Ulcers which have Worms in them Snufft up the Nostrils, it purges the Head and Brain by Sneezing.

XXX. The Cataplasm. Laid to the Wrists of the Hands, it is laid to drive away Agues, especially if a little Bay Salt is also mixed with it. it it is made of the Root of the Bulbous or Tuberous kind, tht Genrfans, as Camerarius says, apply it to Plague Sores and Pestilential Bubo's,'to induce Maturation : and it is not unlike, for it will suppurate an!

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break other Apostems or Tumors, being wifely applied. Tragus says, That' a bit of this Tuberous Koot put to Teeth which do ake, or into an hollow Tooth, takes away the Pain ^ but Authors also say, That many times it breaks those which are hollow, or causes rhem to fall out. This Cataplasm ( or the simple Root) being applied to the Finger of one troubled with the Tooth-ach, eases the Pain, which it does by Attraction, and thereby causes a Pain in the Part to which it is applied. Applied to a foul Ulcer, it will cleanse it, and take away all the fil thy and corrupt Matter therein, leaving the Sore fair, and easily to be healed with other Itineraries ^ but the Cataplasm is not to lye too long upon the Sore, by reason of its Violence. Applied to Scro-phulous Tumors or Kernels in the Neck, or under the Ears, called the Kings-Evil, it breaks them, and causes them to waste away. Authors say, That applied to Hemorrhoids or Piles which fweil and bleed not, it helps to discuss or take them away but that ij: is in no wile to be applied to those which are open and bleed. Applied to a Lence or spotted Leprosie, it kills the virulent Humor, and clears the Skin.

XXXI. The Decoction. It has the Virtues of the liquid Juice and Essence, but not full out so efficacious. It cures Scabs and Itch, they being of ten washed therewith , and is good to take away Tannings, Sun-burnings, Freckles, Lentils, Yellowness of the Skin, Scurff, Motphew, gfc. It is good also to hinder the falling of the Hair, the Head being washed therewith warm _·, and then afterwards to be washed again with warm Water.

XXXII. The Ointment. It has all the Virtues of the Cataplasm, being anointed upon the Parts affected. The Catapkim may also be made therewith,'' instead of Hogs-Lard, by which means it will be yet so much the more effectual.

XXXIII. The distilled Water of the whole Plant, whilst it is in flower, is fate to all the Purpofes a-foreiaid , and, as ibme say, is given with good Sue cefs inwardly, with Species Lithontribon, to provoke Urine when it is stopt, and to break the Stone : and being used as a Waih, it takes away most of the ufuai Deformities of the Skin.

XXXIV. An Observation. Tho' all these Preparations and Virtues aforegoing, are applicable to all the hot, biting and exulcerating Crowfeet promiscously, whether of the Land or Water, and that probably they may all do the same things yet they are generally and sor the most part predicated (except in the Cases where any particular one of them is named ) of the most Common and Meadow Crowfoot.

XXXV. Observ. 2. That the Sweet Crowfoot, or that which has no sharp or biting Taste, is held to be harmleis, for the Germans, as Tragus says, do eat it familiarly among other Herbs. Tragus alio says, That even this sweet kind will discuss and dissolve hard Tumors in aay Part of the Body, being applied.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.