Chap. 175. Of Crowfoot Water.

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I. The Names. It is called in Greek, **vfw L We?r _·_· in hatin, Ranunculus aquaticus * and in Englijl), Water Crowfoot.

II. The Kinds. Authors make several kinds ot Water Crowfoot; as, 1. Water Spear-wort. 2. Water Ivy. 3. Water Star-wort 5 none of which we can atoit into this Kindred for tho' they be hot, like

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the Crowfeet, yet they have nothing of the Form, and we think that something more than the Taste ought to conclude the several Species, otherwise Ginger may as well be admitted into the same Stock, which I am sure no Herbarist will ever grant; for this Reason we referr you for the three afore-named kinds ot Plants to their proper places, which you will find in some of the following Chapters of this Book.

III. The Water Crowfeet then, which we shall treat ot in this Chapter, are four _·, I. Ranunculus aquaticus vulgaris major, Ranunculus aquaticus Hepatic* facie Lobeiii; Ranunculus aquattlis Dodonai, Hepatica aquatica Lugdunensis Hepatica palustris Tbalii; Ranunculus aquaticus jolio rotundo & capil-lacco Bauhini; The Common greater Water Crowfoot. 2. Ranunculus aquaticus Communis minor \ Ranunculus HederuU jolio aquaticus , The lesser Water Crowfoot. 3. Ranunculus palustris Sardoni-us Uvis , Strumea, & Apt aft rum Plinii, by some A pi urn Rifus ; Herba Sardoa Guilandini, (who says, when he was taken Prifoner by Pyrates, and carried into Sardinia, he saw this Herb growing plentifully there : ) Apium aquaticum Tragi ; Apiastrum Cordi; Scelerata Apuleii , Ranunculus palustris Cordi in Historia Lugdunensis, Tbalii, if c. Ranunculus palustris A pii jolio I avis Bauhini ; Ranunculus palustris rotundiore folio Lobeiii; Smooth-leav'd Marsh Crowfoot. 4. Ranunculus palustris Sardonius lan-guinofus _·, Ranunculus Sardonius verus Dioscoridis, Ranunculus Sardonius Anguilara; Apium Sylvestre; Ranunculus palustris Apti jolio languinojus Bauhini, Ranunculus palustris jecundus Matthioli, Of Cordi in Historia , The true Sardinian Marsh Crowfoot.

green, but towards the tops of the Branches gromng above the Water, there be none of those fine Leaves at the Joints, or very few of them, but only round Leaves, growing upon ftjort loet-stalks, cut in a little, and dented about the edges: and with them come forth likewise small Milk-white Flowers, consisting of five Leaves apiece, with some Yellowness in the middle, after which come small, rough, round Heads of Seed, almost like to those of the Land Crowfoot*

IV. The pefcnptions. The first, or Common Water Crowfoot, has a small fibrous or thready Root, from whence comes forth a long trailing tender Stalk, with several Joints therein, at every one of which, that are undtr Water, come forth fine jagged or feathred Leaves, almost like Fibres, but shot they are

V. The second, or Small Water Crowfoot, with Alehoof or Ground-Ivy Leaves, has a great number of fibrous Roots, from whence come many long, fender, trailing Branches or Stalks, shooting forth at almost all the Joints under Water many other fibrous Roots, by which it spreads and very much encreases it self. From the several Joints, as well under as above the Water, spring forth several small,roundish, indented Leavh, not much unlike to those of Ale-hoof*, standing each upon a pretty long Foot-stalk: from some of the Joints with the Leaves, and at the tops of the Stalks, come forth falifh Flowers, having five pointed Leaves apiece, which being pass'd away% leave roundish Heads of Seed after them.

VI. The third, or Smooth-leav'd Marsh Crowfoot, has for a Root a Bujh of small white Fibres , from whence shoot forth several Leaves upon long Foot-stalks, rounder than those growing higher upon the Stalk, and not so deep cut in, but dented about the edges ; from among these Leaves fioot forth a round hollow Stalk, near a foot and half high, spreading it self forth into several Branches , the lower Leaves whereof are more round than those above, and are divided some into three parts, which are the first and lowest, others into five Divisions, and each of them dented about the edges, somewhat like unto Coriander Leaves, smooth, and of a pale green color; but those up higher on the Stalk and branches are ft ill more and more divided , so that some of the highest have no Division or Dent in them. At the tops stand small yellow Flowers, ( but Cordus says, he has observed some to bear purplish which being pass'd away, there come in their places small, long, round Heads, of many crooked Seeds set together, as in some other sorts is to be seen: the whole Plant it as hot, sharp, biting, and as exulcerating as any of the other kinds, whether of the Land or Water.

VII. The fourth, or True Sardinian Marsh Crowfoot, has a Root consisting of a Bunch of white Strings, from which spring forth several large vcinged Leaves, upon Footstalks of a moderate length, divided into several parts, and dented about the edies: from among which spring up one or more Stalks, spreading themselves out into divers Branches, on which grow Leaves, some winged, and J'ome fing!e

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Leaves not winged, more divided than the former kind, and so hairy withal, at if there was a small soft Cotton upon them : at the tops of the Branches and Stalks come forth the Buds ofblowers, consisting of five broad-pointed Leaves apiece, each Lea) being on its end hollowed in a little _·, which being pafs*d a-way, there succeed heads of Seed, much like to the former.

VIII. The Places. These all grow in moist, wet and morifh Grounds, and sometimes by the sides of Waters, Ponds and Ditches, and in plaihy places. The first is common in many places of this Kingdom : the second is more rare to be met with : the third and fourth are often found _·, but not altogether lb frequent to be seen as the firlt.

IX. The Times. They all flower in May and June _·, and their Seed is ripe some time after.

X. The Qualities, Specification, Preparations, Virtues and VJes, see in the following Chapter, these being of the same Nature and Temperature with the former and those following.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.