Chap. 174. Of Crowfoot Wood.
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I. The Names. It is called in Greek, *at&%ov X toAvlw *. in Latin, Ranunculi^ Nemoralis
and in English, Wood Crowfoot.
II. The Kinds. There are, 1. Ranunculus ne-morofus albus simplex, Ranunculus Phragmitis Gesneri, Ranunculus Sylvestr is Tragi, White single-flowred Wood Crowfoot. 2. Ranunculus nemoro-fus albus minor, Ranunculus nemorosus Anemones fiore minor Bauhini, The leafF or lesser white Wood Crowfoot. %. Ranunculus nemorosus flore Cameo, & fiore purpureo, The single bluih and purple Wood Crowfoot. 4. Ranunculus nemorosus luteus, The yellow Wood Crowfoot. Ranunculus nemorosus dulcis, Ranunculus jylvestris fecundus Tragi, Ranunculus Auricomus Lobeiii, Sweet Wood Crowfoot. 6. Ranunculus montanus albus minor simplex, Ranunculus Alpinus albus, The lesser single white Mountain Crowfoot. 7. Ranunculus Virginenfis vel Virgimanus albus, White Virginian Crowfoot.
III. The Descriptions. The first, or White single-flowred, has a Root commonly of the bigness of a Wheat Straw, not growing right down, but creeping at length, under the upper Cruft of the Earth, spreading into several small Knobs, like Branches or Arms, of a dark brown color on the outside, and white within of a sharp biting Taste, inflaming the Mouth, prom this Root rise up two or three Stalks, about an Hand
breadth high or more, about the middle whereof come forth usually three Stalks of Leaves, each being something broad, hard, and cut in on the edges into three parts, of a fad green color, and dented also: the Stalk rises up two or more inches high, bearing at the top one single Flower, hanging down the Head for the most part, consisting of five Leaves, somewhat broad, and almost round*pointed, of a light blewish color on the outside, before it is blown open, but white afterwards, and more white on the inside, having a few white Threads in the middle, tipt with yellow, standing about a green Head 5 which growing ripe in length of time, is something like the other Heads of Crowfeet, composed of many small Seeds compared together.
IV. The second, or leaiF,or lesser White kind, has a Root small and long, and creeping under the upper Cruft of the Earth, like the former, and it has such-like Leaves as the other single White kind, divided into three parts, and each of them into others again, standing upon little long Foot-stalks, but they are much lesser, so that the whole Leaf hereof is not much bigger than one of the Divisions or Parts of the other : the Stalk is very small, with few Leave* thereon, divided in two places more than the lower, little more than two inches high : at the top grows a white Flower, consisting of fix white Leaves, with a few yellowish Threads in the middle _·, which being passd away, leaves a round Head composed of mtmy small Seeds, not much unlike the former.
V. The third, or single blush-colored Wood Crowfoot, is in its Roots, Stalks, Leaves, Flowers, Heads, Seeds, and Form of Growing, like unto the former-, so that until it is in flower, there can scarcely any difference be discerned : but when the Flower appears, it shews it self much more reddish on the outside, and of a fair pale purple or blush color on the inside, which makes it a difiinil Species of it self differing from the rest. But sometimes different Varieties are fou/td of this kind, having its Stalk something
browner, and its flower of avale purplish blew color, (from whence it is called Ranunculus nemorosus flore purpureo caeruleo) like unto ap^e Violet I lower, without any great Smell. These three aforegoing kinds the Italians call Wild Ginger, either because the Roots of them all are very sharp fiot, and biting the Tongue, like Ginger ; or because their Roots do grow a little spreading into froeral Arms or Tuberosities, like to Ginger.
VI. The fourth, or yellow kind, has Roots very like to the first described in this Chap, from whence spring forth such-like Stalks of heaves, and growing in the same manner; but the heaves are not so broad, norfo hard in handling, and are more deeply cut into more long and narrower parts, each also dented about the edges, especially about the ends of the heaves, which are of a darker green color. From between these Stalks of heaves Jhoots forth sometimes but one, and sometimes two or three Stalks, at the top of each of which grows one flower, something smaller than the former, consisting generally of fix or seven, and sometimes of eight heaves, which are of a fair Vale yellow color, with many small Threads in the middle, which being pass'd away, there succeed like Heads of Seed, as in the others. These flowers have the leafi Smell of them all. And unto this kind belongs that sort of Anemone (but rather Crowfoot) which Do-donacus calls Trifolia, having the heaves parted into three, snipt about the edges, and which bears a whitish blushflower.
VII. The fifth, or Auricomus of Lobel, which is *o* sweet Wood kind, has a Root composed of many W)ite Strings or Fibres, like unto some others, but neither its Root nor Leaf has any sharp biting Taste w them, but are almost: Tasteless. from this Root spring up Leaves first of all, which are round, not **m unlike to TidiotLeaves, and not divided in the Jff * lM* which spring up next after them, are we dsvidea > and so also those which grow after up-
on the St a k, are stillmore divided than the former. The flowers are small, and of a fair shining Gold-yellow color, standing at the tops of the Stalks, like unto the Common kinds of Crowfeet. After the flowers ure pass'd aw.iy, come the rough Heads, like a smallStrs wherry, in like manner as other Crowfeet have, in which Heads are contained the Seed, many set together.
VIII. T))e sixth, or lesser single white Mountain Crowfoot, has Roots greater than any of the kindred of Crowfeet _·, from which Root spring forth fairi large, well spread heaves, ( Handing upon a long Foot-stalk ) which are cut into five Divisions, and somewhat dented about the edges, green on the upper side, and paler underneath, having many Veins running thro' the heaves : these heaves are like those of the Common Crowfoot, but greater, of a deep green color, much like to those of the yellow Aconite, called Aconitum luteum Ponticum : it has great fat Stalks, about two feet or more high, spread into ma* ny branches ; at the tops of which come forth white Flowers, consisting of five heaves apiece, with small yellow Chives in the middle, smelling like the Flowers of May or Haw-Thorn, but more pleasant ; after which comes the Seed, which is contained in Heads^ like to the other Crowfeet.
IX. The seventh, or Virginian Crowfoot, has a reddish, thick, tuberous Root, with some small Fibres spring ing from it : from which shoot forth three pr four_· somewhat large, broad, whitish-green heaves upon long Foot-stalks, rent or torn on the edges for the most part 5 among which rises up a slender, round, naked Stalk, five, fix or more inches high, bearing vne white Flower at the top, made of ten or twelve small, narrow and pointed heaves, with a few yellowish Threads in the middle, set about a greenifb Head, which in time grows to be a long slender Pod, in which is contained round whitish Seed.
X* The Places. They are almost all fonnd growing in Woods, Groves and Orchards in most places of this Land. The fourth is found as well by Brook-sides, which pass by Meadows, as in Woods, and by Hedge-sides. The sixth, is called Ranunculus Alptnus, because that those which first found it, met with it upon the Alpine Mountains however, since it has been found to grow plentifully 'Wild in England, especially in Hampstead Wood, from whence it has been transplanted into Gardens. The seventh bears in its Name the place of its Growth, but k has been found in many other parts of Florida.
XI. The Times. They flower pretty early in the Spring, sometimes in March, but for the most part in April and sometimes in May and the Seed is ripe in June, July and August.
XII. The Qualities, Specification, Preparations, Virtues and Uses, see in Chap. ιηβ. these being of the same Nature with those others, where you may have them at large.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.