576. Grindelia.—Grindelia.

The dried leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia camporum Greene, or Grindelia cuneifolia Nuttall, or Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh.) Nuttall, without the presence of admixture of more than 10 per cent. of stems and other foreign matter.

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS.—Woody herbs; leaves clasping, resinous, somewhat cuneate. Involucre hemispherical or globular, coated with resin; rays fertile, yellow; disk-florets yellow, tubular, and perfect. Akenes compressed, the outermost somewhat triangular; pappus awned. Grindelia robusta is found in rather elevated regions, while G. squarrosa is found in the plains. The former is more woody than the latter.

SOURCE.—This genus inhabits the western part of both North and South America. A resinous exudation is common to the various species of the genus, being most abundant in the flower-heads, and it is possible that medicinal properties are common to the genus. Besides the official species, there are found the hirsutula and the glutinosa, similar species growing in the western part of the United States, often cultivated and mixed with the official.

DESCRIPTION OF DRUG.—Rough, grayish-green fragments of the leaves, mixed with brownish-yellow stem fragments, and with flower-heads about 15 mm. (3/5 in.) in diameter, usually destitute of florets, leaving the bare receptacle surrounded by the stiff, varnished, resinous bracts of the involucre; odor balsamic; taste aromatic and bitter.

Distinction of the Two Species.—It may be said that the two species, squarrosa and robusta, resemble each other very much. Robusta is said to have a more leafy involucre and the leaves to be more coarsely serrate. The squarrosa in general is said to be less leafy and bushy, but on close examination of numerous specimens it is a question whether the distinction will hold.

Powder.—Characteristic elements: See Part iv, Chap. I, B.

CONSTITUENTS.—The medicinal properties of grindelia seem to reside in the resinous exudation. An alkaloid principle has been claimed by some investigators and termed grindeline.

ACTION AND USES.—Antispasmodic and sedative, in asthma. Dose: 15 to 60 gr. (1 to 4 Gm.). The fluidextract is said to be an efficient application in rhus poisoning.

Fluidextractum Grindeliae Dose: 15 to 60 drops (1 to 4 mils).

A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 1917, was written by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M.