Materia Medica of the New Mexican Pharmacopoeia. Part 4.
Related entries: M. Ph. Materia Medica: part 1 - part 2 - part 3 - part 4 - part 5 - part 6 - part 7 - part 8 -
Related entries: M. Ph. Pharmaceutical preparations part 1 - part 2 - part 3 - part 4.
Other tomes: King's (mat.med.) - King's (preparations)
BY THE EDITOR.
Banderilla, Loeselia caerulea, Cavanilles. nat. ord. Polemoniaceae. The plant grows near Guadalupe, Pachuca, etc., and is commonly employed as a diaphoretic, emetic and cathartic.
Barbas de chivo, Clematis sericea, De Cand., Ranunculaceae; in the mountains of Pachuca. The bruised leaves applied to the skin for a few minutes are rubefacient, and by longer contact produce blisters and superficial ulceration; the dried leaves are destitute of these properties.
Bellota, the fruit of Mexican oaks, is used as an astringent. Dose, 12 to 15 Gm. of the powder; the decoction 15 to 30 Gm. to one liter of water.Berros. Under this name several plants are used for their antiscorbutic and diuretic properties, namely, Nasturtium officinale, De Cand., Nast. amphibium, De Cand., Sium angustifolium, Lin. (also known as berra or berraza), and Tropaeolum majus, Lin. (also known as mastuerzo).
Betabel. The leaves of the cultivated Beta vulgaris, Lin., are laxative and emollient.
Betónica. In Mexico, Betonica Alopecurus, Lin., is somewhat employed as a stimulant, sialagogue and sternutatory.
Boconia, Bocconia frutescens, Lin., Papaveraceae; in Michoacan and other hot districts. The milkjuice, in doses of 12 to 24 drops, is used as a purgative and anthelmintic, and, mixed with water, as an application for ulcerated eyelids; the boiled and bruised leaves as vulnerary cataplasms. The extract may be used for dyeing, the colors being handsome and lasting. An analysis appears not to have been made; the milkjuice being of a yellow color, it probably contains the same or similar constituents as celandine.
Boldo, Boldoa (Peumus) fragrans, Jussieu. Monimiaceae; from Chile. Used in affections of the liver and kidneys.
Bolontibi, Cissus acida, Lin., Vitaceae; in Yucatan. The acidulous and mucilaginous leaves, bruised, are employed in itch, tinea and other cutaneous affections; also as a maturative.
Borraja, Borago officinalis, Lin., naturalized in fields in Mexico. The leaves and flowers are occasionally used as a stimulant and sudorific.
Brea, the residue from the distillation of turpentine. Two kinds are distinguished in Mexican commerce: 1. Brea de Penca; congealed in moulds of maguey leaves, it forms elongated planoconvex cakes, yellow, glass-like, transparent and brittle. 2. Brea de Marqueta; in cubical cakes or broken, more or less opaque, blackish brown, somewhat empyreumatic.
Butua, Cissampelos Pareira, Lamarck, Menispermaceae, near Chilpancingo, in the State of Guerrero, etc. The root is fibrous, bard, externally brown, internally yellowish gray, the cross section showing concentric, easily separable layers; inodorous; taste sweet, afterwards bitter; reputed to possess diuretic properties. The juice of the leaves is used against snake bites.
Cabalonga (the seeds of Strychnos Ignatii, Bergius), Cacao, Café, Cálamo aromatico (calamus), Canela (cinnamon), Cardamomo menor (cardamom), Cascarilla, Castóreo (castor), Catecú, Cebada (barley) Cebolla (onion), Cera de abejas (beeswax), Cicuta mayor (Conium maculatum), Cidra (Citrus medica), Ciruelo de España (prunes), Clavo de especia (cloves), Coca de Levante (cocculus indicus), Coca del Perú (coca leaves), Cochinilla (cochineal), Cola de pescado (isinglass, in Mexico also obtained from Silurus Bagre and other fishes), Cólchico (tuber and seeds), Colombo, Coloquintida (colocynth), Comino (cumin), Cubeba, Cuernecillo de centeno (ergot), Cuerno de ciervo (hartshorn, from Cervus mexicanus, etc.), Culantro (coriander), Cúrcuma, Cuso. These drugs, well known in our commerce, have been admitted.
Cacahuate, Arachis hypogaea, Lin.. Leguminosae. The seeds are used as an aliment and for preparing the fixed oil; the root is commonly used as a substitute for liquorice root.
Cacaloxochitl, Plumeria rubra, Lin., Apocynaceae; in Morelos, Yucatan and other hot districts. The flowers are pectoral; the juice is used for certain ulcers and for destroying warts.
Cacomite, Tigridia pavonia, Persoon. Iridaceae; in Central Mexico. The bulb is rich in starch, and is boiled and used for food; among common people it enjoys the reputation of being febrifuge.
Cainca, Chiococca anguifuga, Martius. Rubiaceae; Brazil, etc. The Mexican cainca is Ch. racemosa, Jacquin, which, with other roots, is known in Brazil as puaia (poaya), and in Cuba as bejuco de verraco.
It is emetic and purgative; dose, 0.5 to 2.0 Gm., the extract 0.3 to 1.0 Gm.
Calabaza, Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne, and C. Pepo, Lin. The flowers and fruit are alimentary; the seeds, particularly those from the hot districts are taeniafuge in the dose of 60 Gm.
Calaguala is the name given to the rhizomes of different species of ferns, principally Polypodium aureum, Lin., having diaphoretic and pectoral properties, and used in decoction and powder; dose, 2 to 4 Gm.
Calancapatle, Solidago montana, Flor. Mex. ined.. the powder as a vulnerary in atonic ulcers; the decoction in lotions. Similar uses are made of Doronicum glutinosum, Willd., and Grindelia glutinosa, Dunal, known as Calancapatle de Puebla.
Camote, Batatas (Ipomea) edulis, Choisy. Convolvulaceae. The leaves are used for fodder, the roots as food, and the starch as a substitute for arrowroot. The tubers of Oncus (Dioscorea) esculentus, Loureiro, Dioscoreaceae, are known as Camote the cerro, and on account of the large quantity of starch are used for food.
Canchalagua, Erythraea stricta, Schiede, E. chilensis, Persoon, E. jorullensis, Kunth. Gentianaceae. Stem slender; leaves oblong-linear, rather obtuse; inflorescence in dichotomous pannicles; corolla-lobes 4 or 5, elliptic-oblong; stigma cleft; capsule two-celled. Among other constituents Leboeuf (1868) found 9 per cent. of bitter principle. The flowering tops are used as a bitter tonic and stomachic; dose, 15 to 30 Gm. in 500 Gm. infusion.
Cántaridas. A number of Mexican beetles are employed as substitutes for cantharides, of which the following are the most important:
Triodons Barranci, Duges, M. tridentata, Lin. The male is 18 mm. long and 7 mm. broad; the female 44 mm. long and 10 mm. broad; color black; jaws prominent, on the inside with three strong teeth; antennae moderate, the second joint very short, the eleventh elongated and thin at the extremity; thorax small, narrower than the elytra and head; wing cases covering the greater portion of the abdomen of the male, and scarcely the second abdominal ring of the female; abdomen voluminous, soft; legs long and stout; claws yellowish, bifid. The insect is collected from June to September.
Cantharis eucera, Chev. Length 30 to 18 mm., width 9 to 4 mm.; head black, the upper half red; antennae black, moniliform in the female, the fourth to sixth joints trigonal and somewhat dilated; thorax a little broader than and about half the length of the narrow, smooth and glossy black wing cases; abdomen black, in the male the upper part red from the second to the last but one segment, and near the centre with five black dots; lives on pumpkin and other cucurbitaceae.
Mendoza and Herrera proved these insects to contain cantharidin and other constituents of Spanish flies. The indigenous species of Triodons and Meloe were found to be more active than those of the genus Cantharis. For description, etc., see "Gaceta Médica," 1866, vol. ii, and "La Naturaleza," vol. i.
Cañafístula, Cassia fistuloides, Flor. Mex. ined. The fruit is 20 to 60 cm. long, indehiscent, has two longitudinal bands, and its chambers are filled with a black saccharine pulp, containing yellowish flat rhomboidal seeds. 100 parts of fruit yield 445.52 parts of pulp. The fruit of Cassia brasiliana is also met with in the Mexican commerce.
Cáñamo. The fruit, of Cannabis sativa, Lin., is used in the form of an emulsion in inflammations.
Cañuela or Cola de caballo, Equisetum arvense, Lin.. used as a diuretic and antiblennorrhagic.
Caoba, Swietenia Mahogoni, Lin.. Meliaceae. The bark is antiperiodic and astringent; dose 2 Gm.
Capitaneja, Bidens (Platypteris, Kunth; Verbesina, De C.) crocata, Cavanilles. Compositae. In the valley of Mexica, southwest of the capital. Stem stout, four-winged, villous; leaves opposite, villous, the lower ones halbert-shaped, the upper ones pinnatifid and dentate; flowers terminal and axillary, long-peduncled, with the involucre globose, the tubular florets reddish yellow, and the akenes oblong, compressed, two-awned and membranous on the margin. Instead of this plant Helianthus alatus, Flor. Mex. ined. (no such plant -Henriette), is sometimes collected, which has alternate and dentate leaves, a terminal inflorescence and yellow flowers. The decoction is used as a wash for venereal ulcers, together with the powdered leaves; also for curing the sores of beasts of burden.
Capulin, Cerasus Capollin, De Cand.. grows in temperate regions of Mexico. The fruit is edible; the distilled water of the leaves is a substitute for cherry laurel water; the bark is antidysenteric and antiperiodic; dose 1 to 2 Gm.
Caraña, Amyris Caranna, Humboldt, Terebinthaceae (Rutaceae). In the hot districts of Mexico the tree yields a resin which is externally dark gray, internally dark brown, when heated of a balsamic odor, of a bitter resinous taste, completely soluble in alcohol; it is only used in plasters.