- Aqua Ammoniae, Water of Ammonia,—an aqueous solution of the gas NH3, of 1/10 strength by weight. Dose, ♏v-xxx, well diluted.
- Ammonii Carbonas, Ammonium Carbonate,—Dose, gr. ij-x.
- Ammonii Chloridum, Ammonium Chloride. (Sal-Ammoniac), NH4Cl,—soluble in 3 of water. Dose, gr. j-xx.
- Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus,—contains the Carbonate and Water of Ammonia, with aromatic oils. Dose, ʒss-ij.
- Liquor Ammonii Acetatis, Spirit of Mindererus,—contains about 7 p. c. of the Acetate. Dose, ʒj-℥j, freshly made.
- *Raspail's Eau Sedative,—Aq. Ammoniae ℥ij, Sodii Chloridum ℥ij, Spt. Vini Camphorat. ℥iij, Aqua ℥xxxij. For local use.
Physiological Action. The Gas Ammonia is intensely alkaline, and irritant to mucous membranes; inhaled, it causes spasmodic cough and a sense of suffocation, prolonged inhalation inducing violent inflammation and oedema of the glottis. It exists normally in the blood, to maintain its fluidity by helping to keep its fibrin in solution. The Aqua, swallowed, sets up violent inflammation of the passages and the stomach, and may cause stenosis of the pylorus or oesophagus. Ammonium Salts, in medicinal doses, act as stimulant expectorants, diffuse rapidly, and stimulate the heart's action; continued, they produce rapid emaciation, from the impaired digestion and increased tissue-waste set up. In large quantity, they injure the structure of the red blood-corpuscles. The Chloride has decided cholagogue the excretion of urea, and is purgative in 30-grain doses. The Phosphate and Benzoate are diuretic, and the latter acidifies a phosphatic urine.
Antidotes. For Ammonia inhaled, give HCl vapors, by inhalation, to form the Chloride; if in solution, give Vegetable Acids, and demulcents to protect the mucous surfaces. Therapeutically, its antagonists are the cardiac sedatives, Aconite, Digitalis, Veratrum, etc.
- Therapeutics. As a stimulant expectorant in—
- Chronic Bronchitis, and Bronchorrhoea,—the Chloride is of great service.
- Pneumonia, at the crisis—the Carbonate, in infusion of Senega, liquefies the products of inflammation, and counteracts the adynamia.
- Neuralgias, as ovarian and migraine, also in nervous headache,—the Chloride, in 30-grain dose, with gtt. ij-v Tinct. Aconiti, to relieve pain; or Raspail's Eau Sedative applied locally.
- Exanthemata, especially variola, scarlatina and erysipelas, when feeble circulation, cyanosis and delirium—the Carbonate in a solution of the Acetate or the Liquor Ammonii Acetatis.
- Catarrhs, gastric, duodenal and intestinal ,—the Chloride has a high reputation, also in bronchial catarrh, when secretion is scanty and tough, and in chronic bronchitis, as a stimulant expectorant.
- Hepatic Disorders, as incipient cirrhosis, chronic torpor, catarrh of the bile ducts and its jaundice, bilious conditions, etc.,—the Chloride with fluid extract of Taraxacum, gives great relief in many cases.
- Acidity and Vomiting,—the Carbonate in a solution of the Acetate.
- Hysteria,—the Valerianate and the Aromatic Spirit are much employed.
- Fevers,—the Carbonate is used as a stimulant, and the Acetate as a febrifuge.
- Poisoned Bites and Stings,—are treated locally with Aqua Ammoniae.
- Inflammations,—the Chloride in Alcohol and Water, as a lotion.
- As a Cardiac Stimulant in syncope, thrombosis, hemorrhage, chloroform narcosis, snake-bites and hydrocyanic acid poisoning,—the Spirit inhaled or the diluted Aqua intravenously; acts by relaxing the cardiac inhibition.
- Cystitis, with alkaline urine and phosphatic deposits,—the Benzoate acidifies the urine, stimulates and disinfects the vesical mucous membrane.
A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing, 1902, by Sam'l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L.